The ANALYTICAL ENGINE
 Newsletter of the Computer History Association of California
                     ISSN 1071-6351

 Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994
 Kip Crosby, Managing Editor
 Jude Thilman, Telecommunications Editor


 EDITORIAL: THE X-PROJECT ................................. 2
 IN IT FOR YOU, Part Two .................................. 3
 NEW ADDRESSES ............................................ 3
 Johnson and Harker, Part Two ............................. 4
 BLETCHLEY PARK MOVES FORWARD, by Chris P. Burton ........ 16
 California's First ARPANet Host, by Doug Landauer ....... 21
 Early IC ALU's in the Xerox Alto, by Tom del Rosso ...... 23
 MORE ON PLASTIC ROT ..................................... 24
 ASSURANCE FROM AMERICA ONLINE ........................... 25
 NEW SUN HARDWARE REFERENCE .............................. 25
 NOMADNESS NOTES AVAILABLE ............................... 26
 SPOTTER ALERT ........................................... 27
 SPOTTER FLASH ........................................... 27
 DESPERATE PLEA FOR MONEY ................................ 28
 AND SPEAKING OF MONEY.... ............................... 28
 YOU PUBLISH! OR WE PERISH! .............................. 29
 COMPUTERS IN SPACE: Journeys with NASA, by Jim Tomayko .. 30
 ACQUISITIONS ............................................ 32
 LETTERS ................................................. 32
 QUERIES ................................................. 42
 ARTICLES NOTED .......................................... 52
 PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED ................................... 53
 THANKS TO.... ........................................... 54
 NEXT ISSUE .............................................. 55
 GUIDELINES FOR DISTRIBUTION ............................. 55
 GUIDELINES FOR SUBMISSION ............................... 56
 ETERNAL VIGILANCE.... ................................... 56
 A BALLOT by Tim Patterson ............................... 57
 NINES-CARD by James H. Putnam ........................... 57
 ADD MONEY, MAIL.... ..................................... 59

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 2

 Editorial: THE X-PROJECT

 My drawing was not a picture of a hat. It was a picture of a
 boa constrictor digesting an elephant. But since the grown-ups
 were not able to understand it, I made another drawing: I drew
 the inside of the boa constrictor, so that the grown-ups could
 see it clearly.

                          -- Saint-Exup�ry, _The Little Prince_

 In eighteen months we've learned a lot about pushing the
 envelope. First the micros began to arrive, and, well, micros
 are easy. (Up to a point!) Then we retrieved the PDS 1020 and
 the HP 3000 on the very same day, and with some stretching (oof,
 grunt) we had space for the minis too.

 Okay. Playtime is over. Are we ready for a mainframe?

 A major Federal agency in the Rockies would like to clear out a
 bootable and working XDS 930. This once-potent mainframe from
 Xerox Data Systems (which began life as Max Palevsky's
 Scientific Data Systems) was built in Southern California in the
 early Seventies. Certainly there are many classic California
 mainframes, but this one indisputably has a lot of soul. And
 while it's not small, it's not gargantuan, either. Just the size
 to make rookie CS students stand there with their mouths open.

 If we can find a place to put it.

 Because what we mean by "not gargantuan" is....ten or twelve
 racks. Say fifteen feet long, five tall and four deep. About the
 size of a small five-passenger sedan, on its side.

 It could be the kingpin of a real, museum-quality computer
 collection. If we can find a place to put it.

 We could even have it running, for special occasions.
 Receptions. Conferences. Anniversaries. Fundraisers. If we can
 find a place to put it.

 When visiting scholars ask to see our California hardware we
 could say "Right this way." If we can find a place to put it.

 Look, friends. We conquer space or it conquers us. When CHAC
 started eighteen months ago, it needed money, organization,
 contacts, and credibility. Now it needs money, organization,
 contacts, credibility, and space -- mostly space.

 The opportunity to secure this XDS 930 is not without limit; nor
 is the patience of its current owners. If we can't find a place
 to put this within a reasonable time -- probably defined as a

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 3

 couple of months -- this agency will write us off as Not Serious,
 and scrap the computer.

 _You_ can help us save this California classic by pointing the
 way to donated storage for a computer about the size of a small
 car. The space has to be long-term, because we don't want to
 move this again for trivial reasons. A Silicon Valley location
 would be nice, but anywhere in Northern California will do. Your
 company's tax deduction will be signed, sealed and delivered.
 And, naturally, undying gratitude and recognition is part of the

 1999 is here! Please help!

 IN IT FOR YOU, Part Two

 To our enthusiastically received offer of a discount on Doctor
 Haddock's _Collector's Guide to Personal Computers_, we now add
 a second spiff -- this one exclusively for subscribers.

 Lexikon Services' HISTORY OF COMPUTING by Mark Greenia will be
 the ENGINE's reward to you for a two-year subscription or
 renewal. Compared to version 2.0, which was glowingly reviewed
 in July's ENGINE, the extensively reworked Version 2.5 offers:

 - Expanded and improved menus
 - Over 60 pages of new information
 - Expanded listing of early large digital computers
 - Expanded listing of early microcomputers
 - Over 300 different types of computers and devices
 - Additional profiles of computer pioneers and companies
 - Expanded bibliography
 - Numerous revisions and clarifications in the Dictionary.

 This indispensable reference to computer history, a US$19.95
 value, can be _yours_ when you subscribe to the ANALYTICAL
 ENGINE for two years, or extend your current subscription. Just
 include the words "History Diskette" on your sub slip or in your
 e-mail and we'll send it by first class post.

 (Oh, and -- the HISTORY requires a computer with a 3.5" floppy
 drive that runs MS-DOS or MS-Windows.)


 We're firmly established in Palo Alto and eager to receive
 whatever you might want to send. (Note: Please _don't_ ship a
 computer or other heavy hardware without querying first, by e-

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 4

 mail or snail-mail.)

 Subs, articles, donations and general correspondence are welcome

 Computer History Association of California
 3375 Alma Street
 Apt. 263
 Palo Alto, CA 94306-3518

 We were hoping to have a new e-mail address by the time this
 issue of the ENGINE appeared, but InterNIC is drowning in
 requests for domain names and couldn't get back to us by October
 15th. Look for the updated address on the net and in the January

 Rey Johnson and Jack Harker talk about RAMAC, the Low Cost File
 System and the dawn of the floppy

 (Part 2)
 Interview by Kip Crosby and Max Elbaum

 _KC: This does lead into something else that we should consider
 before we get too far along in the hardware technology. There
 always was the question of how you defined the data on the disk
 -- once you put it on there, and can we briefly treat questions
 of encoding and data location before we go further?_

 RJ: Packing random numbers efficiently and getting to them.
 Punch cards all stack one on top of the other, and the space
 required is determined by the number of numbers you have. But
 here, if the numbers are a thousand units apart, stacking them
 becomes the problem. I'm not enough of a systems engineer to
 answer that, but at the time we had Pete Luhn, a very prolific
 inventor in IBM, who was responsible for the mathematical system
 where, by doing arithmetic on an account number, you generated
 random numbers, so all account numbers took on the
 characteristic of random numbering and could then be sorted and
 stacked very efficiently. And then when you got back, you'd re-
 convert that random number by the encoding technique to the
 original account number.

 _KC: Did this amount to on-the-fly data compression?_

 JH: No. That was to randomize the records so that you could get
 a uniform distribution of records, because it didn't have index
 tracks on the first RAMAC.

 _KC: So all the indexing had to be performed on the data

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 5


 JH: In order to get a uniform distribution of records across the
 space, you wanted to randomize it. It was a pseudo-random
 algorithm that would allow you to reproduce the process and
 locate the record.

 RJ: The records were in fixed-size pockets, and when the pocket
 ran over, there was an address of where the next pocket would

 JH: So if you did get duplication then you'd write trailer
 records. The original recording, as I recall, was a straight
 conversion. But in later times you got a little more
 sophisticated than that, in terms of using frequency versus code
 length. And you really didn't do much data compression, in the
 classic sense, for a long, long time.

 _KC: Because even without any kind of compression, you still had
 data densities on the disk files that were more than

 JH: Yes. We were always very conservative on the electronics
 side of re-writing, because you really had a problem of
 reliability as you were updating things in real time, and you
 didn't have good backups.

 RJ: It's a classic problem -- how do you stack random numbers in
 space that tend to be sequential?

 JH: When ASD was broken off from the development laboratory [in
 May 1959] there were people in Rey's lab who were trying to
 convince us that they could record at ten times prevailing
 density just by using some data compression and some signal
 processing technology, filtering, pre-comp, post-comp -- things
 that are all standard now, but they took a long time.

 RJ: The thing that has surprised us is that, over these forty
 years, the same technology still holds. The moving heads over
 the rotating disks and surface; and to this day -- Emil Hoffner,
 who has been the most active in signal processing, claims that
 he can get at least ten times the density of any system now in
 use through new signal processing. And the latest, very
 important change that has taken place in the reading head is
 that no longer does a signal get its energy out of the speed.
 The signal is subject to variation by the presence of the
 magnetic bit -- it's magnetostrictive -- so that you can really go
 very slowly if necessary and you don't have the same servo
 problems. And it gives some increased density in the bargain.

 JH: It's been a very extendable technology -- far more than we
 ever envisioned.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 6

 _KC: We were talking about that on the way over, how throughout
 the rest of computer technology you have succeeding generations
 of hardware every 18 months to three years, and yet here at the
 core of storage is that same old hard disk, 40 years later,
 spinning the way it always did._

 _After you moved the lab from Notre Dame Avenue to Julian Street
 -- in February of '56 at the Western Joint Computer Conference --
 you gave a demo of a device with 50 24-inch disks on a common
 spindle, and on those 24-inch disks only the outer five-inch
 band was used for data recording. Now why did you use such a
 small proportion of the area for data?_

 JH: Try to get a disk that big flat!

 RJ: Wasn't the disk smaller?

 JH: No, it was 24. I don't think we ever built a file less in
 those days. The 24-inch criterion came about -- the first file
 that we made that worked, had disks made of an almag alloy, a
 printer's masterplate for photolithography, dead soft and very
 flat. These plates were two feet square, and that became the
 constraint of the first disk that we built. We'd set those
 plates on a piece of plywood, and use a plywood radial arm with
 a centering pin on it and a router. And you'd set the router to
 cut the O.D., and then you'd move it to an inner position and
 cut the I.D. And that's how we made the first successful disk.
 We'd made mockups before, as Rey had described, but this was the
 first one you could really read and write on.

 RJ: This [in picture from _PG&E Progress_] is Wes Dickinson. He
 was a test engineer.

 JH: Wes was one of the servo engineers.

 RJ: He was sitting at this early model RAMAC disk file, testing
 it. One day, the spacers between the drums exploded and flew in
 all directions. It cut him on the nose and at a tendon in his
 arm, plus a bystander. They had called it a bologna slicer even
 before, and with that kind of explosion, we were afraid of the
 whole project going down. What we had done is -- because these
 spacers had to be fairly thick -- it was very difficult to put
 them on and off the spindle. So we cut the disk so that it was
 slightly expandable, and thus went on and off easily. We
 depended upon the compression upon assembly to hold them.

 JH: The way the disk was designed, you had spacers that went
 down over a shaft, and spacers were cast iron rings and you
 could grind them very accurately for spacing the disks. The disk
 rested on a step on the spacer -- I think we used a rubber ring
 to compress it against the flat side of the adjacent spacer. So

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 7

 we were having trouble, because with the tight fit between the
 shaft and the spacer, there was a cocking problem sliding the
 spacers down the shaft. A suggestion was made and it seemed
 reasonable: you could cut the spacer, because once the disk was
 on it, the spacer was contained and couldn't expand. So it was
 safe as long as there was a disk on it. What happened -- and a
 lot of us wonder why we ever let it happen, but we did: disks
 were a hard commodity to come by in those days for test
 purposes.... So in order to test the servo you would load up a
 spindle with four or five disks on the bottom, and four or five
 on the top, and then nothing in between but spacers. And the
 compression was the only thing that held them.

 _KC: Right, and the spacer came apart._

 JH: And once one spacer came apart the rest of them exploded.
 And I feel badly about that, because I was one of the design
 engineers and should have seen that!

 _KC: Let me ask you a question that hadn't occurred to me
 before: If these disks were made out of lithography plates, they
 aren't the hardest thing in the world. And when you stack those
 disks on a vertical spindle, how do you keep them from

 JH: The hardness does not relate. You're mixing up two physical
 qualities: stiffness and hardness. A stiff material isn't
 necessarily hard or soft. You don't make something stiffer by
 hardening it. So, yes, it was a soft plate but relatively thick
 -- a tenth of an inch thick. The one that Rey showed you here was
 one of the production disks, because those lithography plates
 were expensive. [For production] We laminated two fifty-
 thousandths sheet aluminum disks, and then relied on the
 lamination process to get the flatness we needed.

 RJ: Basically the disk is held at the center here -- there's no
 tendency to droop.

 JH: There is a measurable droop from I.D. to O.D.

 RJ: Oh yes, very slight, but it's uniform.

 JH: Yes, it's uniform. Again, we were in a thousandths-of-an-
 inch spacing and that's relatively forgiving. The disks had a
 total run-out, probably in those days, of five ten-thousandths.

 _KC: Measuring from I.D. to O.D.?_

 JH: No, just the ripple. If you spun the disk ...

 RJ: I thought it was more than that. But in any case the head
 was always positioned against the surface, and to this day is

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 8

 positioned against the surface, not to a dimension.

 _KC: So that in fact, the total run-out of the disk was a
 relatively large multiplier to head gap?_

 JH: Always has been, always will be. Even today, although the
 disks are very flat, the spacings are very small. And that was
 the key problem on the 1301: that the run-out of the disk -- not
 the gross run-out, but local run-out of the disk -- was
 significant relative to the spacing, which came out; if you've
 been into disk technology at all, there is a thing called an
 "X"; a measurement of the disk, which is acceleration. We got so
 the way we cured the problem was by testing disks looking at the
 second derivative of the geometry, and you had to specify that
 that second derivative could not be too great.

 _KC: Could not be larger than a value which would prove out to a
 flat enough disk ..._

 JH: The airhead was more forgiving, for various reasons, than
 the gliding head.

 _KC: The airhead was a guaranteed terrain-following head, in a

 RJ: So was the gliding head.

 JH: The trouble was, the geometry of the head, compared to the
 local flatness of the disk, is relatively the same dimension.
 And so the shape of the disk is the same, as if you've misshaped
 the head locally. That's a problem that would not be a problem
 with an air-fed head, because the air cushion is more stable.

 _KC: Right. But when you have a flying head, or what was called
 a gliding or sliding head -- the ADF, which became the 1301, was
 a slider head, right? And what were some of the problems
 associated with that?_

 RJ: Resolving the philosophy of whether you needed a curved edge
 or a straight edge, how the air got under and stayed there.

 JH: To go back in history a ways, if you read classic bearing
 theory, Lord Raleigh sometime in the 1800s, 1700s, whatever,
 demonstrated that you could polish a penny and then if you held
 it against a spinning disk, it would act as a bearing. And so
 the fact of the air bearing is old. In fact, Rey commented there
 was a company called Sunn Hone that made hones to get very
 accurate poles and shafts, and they had a demonstration with a
 shaft and a donut, where you could sit and spin the donut, and
 it would spin forever on the film of air. They had smooth enough

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 9

 _KC: Because the donut and the shaft were matched that closely?_

 JH: It's the same thing as a journal bearing in an automobile,
 except you're using air as the lubricant, air as the media
 between. And there was a classic lubrication theory for such
 bearings. The problem is that air is a compressible fluid, and
 no one had ever done either systematic experiment or analysis of
 bearings with a compressible fluid, strange as it may sound.
 That was really the new art.

 _KC: It's not so strange as all that, because most bearings had
 been lubricated with fluids that were not gasses, and all fluids
 that weren't gasses are by definition, incompressible._

 JH: Early, the idea of an air bearing had been proposed and it
 sounded like it would be a good way of a self-acting bearing, of
 building a multiple-head file, which is what we wanted for the
 ADF. And we were building them and trying to make them work, and
 we just kept having repeated, unexplainable failures. So that's
 when we started looking for the shape of the bearing to make a
 big difference. It was my first management job and so I said,
 "We don't know how flat they are -- let's make them all flat."
 That's when we started buying optical flats, and we would polish
 them until they were flat, and then they all failed.

 _KC: Optically flat heads?_

 JH: And they all failed at a given spacing. They would all work
 stably until you got to about two hundred micro-inches, and then
 they failed. And that was when a very good bearing theorist,
 Bill Gross in research, and a programmer, Bill Michaels,
 programmed the 650 to do a mesh analysis with a compressible
 fluid. Ken Haughton and Russ Bruener were the two individuals
 who did the experimental work, and we found that as you curved

[the head]

you would achieve a stable bearing. You have to shape the bearing, you have to have an entry wedge. If you look at heads today they’re flat, but they’ve got a slope in the front. _KC: Because if you’re going to have air under that two hundred micro-inches, you’ve got to provide some way for the air to get in?_ JH: No, it has to do with — I don’t know an easy way to take you through it. It’s the fact that you have a wedge. The force generated up is because there is a decreasing spacing, and to do that you have to have the bearing at an angle. Once you generate the pressure at the leading edge, there will be the slope that is necessary to generate the pressure. _KC: It’s literally a hydrodynamic …_ RJ: From a practical engineer’s point of view, if you’re going

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 10

 this way against the surface, this very last air, here, the last
 row of molecules of air, has to move at infinity -- sideways -- to
 not move under.

 JH: This is not a Bernoulli effect. It is not because you have a
 flow under. It is because you're really getting a circulatory
 component of the motion. You're in the boundary layer, so the
 air against the slider is stationary. On the whole surface of
 the head the air is stationary; at the disk it's moving. And you
 have a velocity gradient, therefore, in that area. It is the
 changing of velocity gradient that produces a normal force.

 _KC: And when you had a perfectly flat head ..._

 JH: If you have the two of them flat, you will not generate the
 kind of a gradient that will give you an upward force.

 _KC: So that when you got the perfectly flat head, the optically
 flat head close enough to the disk, it just sort of clamped down
 onto the disk because there was not proper flow?_

 JH: With the non-compressible fluid, you can think of it as a
 lever coming back to an imaginary pivot point. As you press down
 you will always have an angle until you come into contact. A
 simple analogy is if you raised the pivot point a little bit
 above the disk, above the flat surface; as you come down you
 reach a point at which they become parallel and it collapses.
 That's not technically an accurate description, but it's a

 _KC: It's a good visualization, because I certainly never
 understood it before as well as I do now -- calculus or no

 _Let's go on to talk about the 1311 a little bit, the Low Cost
 File, which was the attempt to bring the disk or the disk pack
 technology into a format more appealing to IBM's traditional
 business customer -- is that accurate?_

 JH: The program started after the RAMAC was well underway. There
 was a proposal to build a smaller RAMAC -- a half RAMAC, to go to
 a lower cost base, and therefore smaller businesses and larger
 market. And three of us were assigned as a study by Lou Stevens
 to do it. We had to have a disk that was about half the size and
 capacity. We actually designed a machine that never, of itself,
 came to fruition, but I designed the file. And at that time
 there was also an effort in Rey's lab, under Al Hoagland, to
 build a single-disk file. And they designed and built a
 prototype of an advanced file that had a removable disk. At the
 same time someone did a study -- and I've forgotten, was it
 [John] Knowland? -- a study of a utility billing application. (By
 the way, there's a lot of emphasis today on understanding

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 11

 customer problems. In those early days in the lab we spent more
 time -- all the engineers -- going out and talking to customers,
 not trying to have them tell us what we should build, but to try
 and understand how they were running their business.) The
 planner said, "If I could have disks that were removable like
 tape, I could use them in a mode like tapes, a skip-sequential
 processing." Because, although the disk was slower than the tape
 in terms of data because it was a serial device and not a
 parallel read, you could be competitive -- in fact you could do
 the job faster, because you'd skip over the records that you
 weren't using, which was the great shortcoming that tape always
 had. So this was the application, and in evaluating this
 program, I decided that if I was going to build it cheap I had
 to cut the capacity down and the disk size -- it started out by
 being a half-size RAMAC file, so the disk was going to be 12
 inches instead of 24.

 _KC: But somehow it ended up 14, didn't it?_

 JH: That's because the first time I laid the format of the disk
 out, I laid it out with an outer track at 12 inches, and I said,
 "Well, it's got to be 13 inches." I went off the program at that
 time, but during the later development they were having trouble
 with the density at the I.D., and Vic Witt said, "Make the disk
 an inch bigger," and that solved the problem. The challenge was
 cost; in those days it cost just about twenty-five thousand
 dollars to build a RAMAC, and to build the ADF was going to cost
 fifty thousand dollars, and I had to build this whole drive for
 two thousand dollars, that was the objective I'd been given.

 _KC: Two thousand dollars?_

 JH: Yes, which was less than the cost of the heads on the ADF. And
 so we had to come up with clever, cheap techniques.

 RJ: How many did you build?

 JH: Probably about twenty thousand. See, in those days, if the
 market that we projected was for five thousand of something, that
 was a mass market. And there was a very foresighted planner we
 worked with on the low-cost file -- Chuck Hester. He wrote a
 planning proposal which said we could sell fifty thousand of
 these, and everybody thought he was out of his head. Obviously we
 didn't -- we didn't sell that many 1311s, but that was because it
 was superseded by the 2311.

 _KC: But by now, when you talk about much larger sales
 projections, I would think we're getting into the period of the
 1401 when you could put a small computer, so-to-speak, in an
 office without its own air conditioning, without a lot of the
 expensive support that large computers had traditionally

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 12

 JH: The 1311 was introduced with the 1440, which was a scaled-down
 1401. And it was not a very successful product in and of itself,
 which is probably why the 1311 didn't sell more than it did.

 _KC: You mean the 1440 wasn't?_

 JH: The 1440 wasn't. But then they started putting the 1311s on
 successive machines, then the [System/]360 came along. The 2311
 was the disk file for the 360.

 _KC: Right. Just one detail for my personal curiosity: If a 1440
 was basically a 1401 with a hard disk, what was a 1410?_

 JH: It was scaled up from that. These things -- you're getting into
 territorial more than technical.

 _KC: In what sense?_

 JH: Endicott was the 1400 series; Poughkeepsie was the 700, 7000
 series. San Jose had the 305. There was to be a 310 that never saw
 the light of day, because Endicott showed that if they took a 1401
 base and added this, and this, and this, it was judged to be
 better. And you were leveraging off prior development, and the 310
 would been a totally new development -- it was not really an
 upgrade of the 305.

 _KC: Speaking of project-based territoriality, was some of that
 responsible for the last super-fast drum memory, the 7320?_

 JH: Drums were never a happy product in IBM manufacturing.
 Manufacturing drums was never a satisfactory thing.

 _KC: Well, you've got a great piece of metal here with a ten-
 thousandth's run-out ..._

 JH: And plating is a dirty art. They were continued primarily for
 the military applications. We had many attempts and then finally
 we came out with the fixed-head file. Essentially these were all
 driven by the high end of the computer -- it wanted fast access.

 _KC: They wanted access that was in proportion to CPU speed
 basically, because when you got to the high end, you were paying a
 lot for CPU speed._

 JH: This was, again, a territorial argument. And you'll notice
 that there aren't such things these days.

 RJ: Since this is a California computer history, I think the San
 Jose site is really history in California, because it was hailed
 as the most successful of plants at IBM, and it actually called
 for more manpower than any other business in Silicon Valley ...

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 13

 _KC: It was financially the most successful of all of IBM's labs?_

 JH: It depends on how you measure. I'm just looking at innovation,
 of the things that started out here. We had more projects than we
 could ever implement, but if you look at the ones that came -- the
 whole cash issuing business, mag-stripe credit cards. There's a
 whole litany. Talk about compression, some of the early successful
 data compression work was done in Rey's lab.

 _KC: According to my notes here, the San Jose lab was operated as
 a separate facility until 1968. It was an independent thing; it
 may at some point have come under the jurisdiction of Advanced

 RJ: It was always part of the corporate family. It never had the
 kind of independence that it has now as an independent subsidiary.

 JH: When IBM decided to produce the RAMAC through development as a
 product, as Rey said, he didn't think he wanted to be a product
 developer. At that time the lab was split, almost exactly when IBM
 formed the research division, and Rey's lab became the West Coast
 Research Lab. There was a development lab, which remained at 99
 Notre Dame, and Rey moved to Julian Street. The development lab
 under Lou Stevens developed the RAMAC. I floated back and forth
 between the two organizations. And then later, IBM formed the
 Advanced Systems Development Division, and again Rey's lab split
 into two pieces -- one of which was Advanced Development, which he
 took, and then a research lab.

 RJ: The lab was called Research and Engineering Laboratory in the
 beginning, and my approach to research in the industrial
 laboratory was that basic research is almost always necessary, in
 order to understand what you're trying to do, so you can do it
 better. That was why we hired Al Hoagland very early in the
 program, to understand what magnetic surfaces are and how magnetic
 heads work. Many of us didn't know that. We hired Dr. Bill Gross
 to understand bearings, and we had chemists and people who
 understood what we were doing, so we could make a better disk
 coating. My own role has always been essentially invention and
 design. When the corporation expanded in the R&D direction, they
 hired Dr. [Emanuel] Piore as research director. He was in favor of
 having advanced development, and exploratory development as part
 of research; but he lost the battle somewhere, and so a research
 division was founded with a major laboratory in Westchester
 County, New York. My laboratory was split -- my physics and
 chemistry departments went to research, and I moved my laboratory
 up to Los Gatos. In that laboratory we developed a lot of things
 that nucleated into products, but they didn't all have the direct
 line of product that RAMAC had.

 JH: It was a kind of basic research.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 14

 RJ: It was new development. We developed the first cassette for a
 video recorder, actually.

 _KC: When was that?_

 RJ: In the late '60s. Tom Watson looked at this and he said, "You
 know, this is a very interesting machine, but we're not in that
 business." IBM was working with Sony in Japan. Sony came over and
 looked at what we were doing, and they changed their approach to
 the one used at Los Gatos -- from a wide spool-to-spool system. Our
 contribution was pulling the tape around a spinning head, then
 returning it to the cassette. But IBM did not exploit the Los
 Gatos laboratory's breakthrough.

 The same thing happened in a voice-assisted typewriter project
 that Wes Dickinson was working on. We had a thousand-word
 typewriter in which you could say, "Dear sir," and the words would
 flash up, including all the homonyms. If you said "two," it would
 flash _two, to, two, Sioux, chew_, and any other "homonym." It was
 a pattern matching system -- it matched the pattern of the person's
 previously recorded voice, an analog machine. As happened a number
 of times, it didn't work very well when we showed it to Tom
 Watson. He went back to New York and inquired of the research
 staff, which had worked on voice recognition, and they agreed -- as
 we did ourselves -- that it would be years and years before
 reliable voice recognition became practical. But that was the
 premise I'd started from: no way would you ever be able to build a
 universal voice recognition machine with any kind of vocabulary. I
 intended to work within a personalized, limited vocabulary to
 create a useful typing machine, but I got squelched and it folded.

 _KC: And of course that became the core of the great debate over
 voice recognition. Is there a market for a machine that has to be
 trained to single voices, or do you have to wait until you have
 enough computational power to do the whole shot? -- which is a
 debate that's going on many more times today._

 RJ: Correlated voice patterns work with human assistance. And the
 same thing goes for handwriting. There's just no way that you'll
 get a universal, reliable handwriting machine -- there's too much
 variation in humans as to how they do writing; but you can make a
 useful machine that's _not_ universal. We built a model in which
 the voice recognition was connected to an adding machine. It
 worked with all the decimals and control words; IBM demonstrated
 it at the World's Fair in Seattle. We did a lot of interesting
 things. I was appointed an IBM Fellow in 1965, I've developed a
 lot of learning machines since then.

 _KC: But this was a tremendous amount of development. May I point
 out, we've taken two hours to go through a fairly summary
 description of San Jose's contributions to IBM and to the world at

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 15

 large, and I'm sure there are more we haven't even touched on._

 JH: The floppy disk.

 _KC: I'm not letting that one go by. IBM made the first floppy

 JH: It was when the Model 4360 went from core memory to
 semiconductor. They needed an IPL -- initial program load -- device,
 and we were given the task of an IPL device in San Jose. And
 [Alan] Shugart had Dave Noble look around and figure out how we
 could make an inexpensive form of IPL -- something you'd publish or
 initialize, and then distribute. And he looked at a number of
 possible predecessors -- one of which had been developed in Rey's
 lab by a guy named Bob Tresieder, which was a stretch membrane
 disk. I don't know if you've ever heard of that technology; 3M has
 pursued it off and on for a fair time. If you take a disk in a
 flexible medium, and stretch it uniformly on a circular periphery,
 you can then cut a hole out of it, and what you have is a
 stretched membrane. And with the circular cut there's no
 distortion, because all the forces are radial.

 _KC: Everything was released by the circular cut?_

 JH: No, it didn't release anything, because there were no radial
 forces on the inner edge, but you'd have a stiff thing. David
 looked at that and decided to do something simpler, which was: you
 just have a flexible disk against a padded surface and press a
 head against it, and he showed it would work. The first one,
 called MINNOW, was an IPL device for the semiconductor memory
 systems, and then as a successor product was developed, we looked
 at the application of a read-write device.

 _KC: So the first ones, being IPLs, would be read-only?_

 JH: They would be read-only in the field; there was a recorder we
 built for it in the factory.

 _KC: It was like CDs now, because it was recordable in the factory
 but read-only in the field? What year was this?_

 JH: That was in the early '70s, probably close to 1970. Dave
 developed such a thing -- Figaro was the name of the project
 initially -- and we couldn't find anybody who was interested in it.
 Dave went back and sharpened his pencil, and it became Igar, which
 sliced the "F" and the "O" off Figaro. He had a talented, small
 group of engineers, and they came out -- essentially -- with the
 eight-inch disk product. We were then just starting to see the
 keyboard-to-tape Mohawk recorders, and our Rochester lab got the
 job of building a direct input device. They were looking at a tape
 drive being developed from Boulder, but the guy who ran the
 Rochester lab came originally from San Jose -- I had worked with

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 16

 him for years. He came out and I showed him this, and we convinced
 him that the floppy disk was better for a direct-key input

 _KC: So that was the beginning of key-to-disk?_

 JH: Yes, and it was obviously tremendously successful. And we
 moved the project from San Jose, first to Boulder and then to
 Rochester where it was manufactured. But it was developed in San

 by Chris P. Burton, The Computer Conservation Society

 Readers of the ENGINE will be aware that during World War 2, up
 to 12,000 people worked at Bletchley Park, fifty miles north of
 London, on ultra-secret code-breaking work. Enemy radio messages
 were intercepted, the sophisticated encipherments were broken,
 and the resulting information used to the Allies' advantage. The
 clever work was done by mathematicians, including Alan Turing,
 and linguists, while the bulk of the dreary routine work was
 done mostly by servicewomen. A large special-purpose electronic
 machine, COLOSSUS, was installed there in 1943, followed later
 by eleven more. With hindsight, we would probably say that
 Colossus was a fixed-program electronic computer, in the same
 sense that ENIAC was. Despite the large number of people working
 there, a comprehensively observed oath of secrecy prevented any
 information about what went on at Bletchley Park (known
 affectionately as "BP") leaking out -- until the mid-1970s, when
 the existence of Colossus was revealed, but with little
 information about the design or use of the machine. In
 subsequent years, a few fascinating books about BP have
 appeared, sometimes contradictory, and usually tantalizingly
 short of key details. There has been no memorial to all those
 people who worked tirelessly, in Spartan conditions, most of
 them knowing neither what their fellows were doing, nor what
 results their own work might have contributed to.

 About three years ago the 57-acre park, with its Mansion and
 many surviving wartime buildings, appeared at risk of being sold
 off for housing development by its owners, British Telecom and
 Property Holdings, the agency which looks after real estate for
 the government. Some wise people in the neighborhood recognized
 the threat to a potentially important heritage site, and formed
 the Bletchley Park Trust, which at once appealed for funds to
 preserve the estate and to prevent demolition of key historic
 buildings. To pay for the property, the Trust plans to set up a
 number of museums as a "Museums Campus" for the public, and to
 lease out some post-war buildings as office and workshop space

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 17

 to paying tenants. Since the formation of the Trust,
 negotiations have continued with the owners for acquisition, but
 these have not yet reached their conclusion. Recently, however,
 a two-year lease on one building was agreed, and permission
 granted to allow the public into the Park. These arrangements
 allowed the Trust to hold Open Weekends for the public, to have
 guided tours of the buildings, and to present various
 exhibitions relevant to the wartime effort. At this stage, all
 work is being done by volunteers.

 All this is highly relevant to the Computer Conservation Society
 and to its Secretary, Tony Sale, a founder of the Trust and its
 Museums Director. The plan is to establish separate museums of
 post-1930s technology, particularly for Cryptography, for
 Computing, for Radar and Electronics, and possibly for
 Telecommunications and for Air Traffic Control. The museums will
 be housed in the numerous and spacious buildings. The whole park
 will have a 1940s theme against the background of the code-
 breaking work. The Museum of Computing will have adequate space
 for workshops and storage, and it is likely that much
 restoration done by the CCS will take place there, supplementing
 current activities in the science museums at London and
 Manchester. While these museums and workshops are established --
 a process which will take years -- various exhibitions have been
 mounted for the Open Weekends which will sustain public interest
 in the project.

 Most exciting for computer historians is the ongoing
 construction of a working replica of Colossus. This is being
 done against great odds, since at the end of the war, Churchill
 ordered that the twelve Colossi must be "broken into pieces no
 larger than a man's fist", and no significant fragments are
 known to remain. If the machine is to be re-created, it must be
 done soon and urgently, while memories and experience of the
 surviving designers and users can still be tapped.

 The Colossus Rebuild Project was launched, and the Bletchley
 Park Exhibitions officially declared open, on 18th July by His
 Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, patron of the British Computer
 Society. This Royal Opening, which I was privileged to attend,
 brought welcome public attention to the Trust and its efforts.

 For someone who has read about and is fascinated by the wizardry
 at BP during the war, but has never visited the place, driving
 past its stern warning notices, its security personnel
 (civilian, not military!) and its long, low, bomb-proof
 buildings brings a lump of nostalgia to the throat. Many of the
 buildings, empty since the end of the war, have their windows
 boarded over for protection from vandals. You pass the Mansion,
 looking exactly as it does in the photos in the books, with the
 lawns and trees and the lake below. To actually walk up to the
 faded, decrepit wooden Hut 6, where the first decipherings of

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 18

 the Enigma machine's traffic were made in 1939 and 1940, and to
 place one's hand on the warm wall, almost brings a tear to the
 eye. But the winter of 1940 was particularly severe, and one of
 the huts was heated by a greenhouse heater! Such uncomfortable
 conditions, and such magical, exciting, never-to-be-repeated
 work was done in there! Across the way is Hut 11, where the
 first Bombes were housed, and over there beyond the green grass
 is the utilitarian-looking H-Block, where the first Colossi
 worked. In that building are most of the present-day exhibitions
 and the rooms where Colossus will be rebuilt.

 The Royal Visit day was one of the many very sunny, hot, summer
 days that Britain has been blessed with this year. Security was
 tight; we had to have our passes applied for and received a week
 beforehand. I believe about 800 guests were invited, and I guess
 that 600 turned up. Very many of them were elderly former
 workers at BP, who had been given dispensation by GCHQ to admit
 to the work they did. Last admissions were at 10:30, then the
 barriers were closed until about 11:00, when His Royal Highness
 arrived and was welcomed by the Lord Lieutenant. The crowds of
 guests were unfortunately not allowed to go into any of the
 buildings until after the tour by HRH, so they had to wander
 round among the trees, and look at the buildings from the
 outside for most of the morning. Somewhat tiring in the hot

 The welcoming ceremony was at the Mansion, the focus of the
 park, and the party was then driven to the exhibition tour in a
 series of beautifully restored WW2 jeeps, with pennants flying
 from antennas, driven by uniformed "military police". The Duke's
 party was then escorted round the exhibitions by Tony and
 Margaret Sale.

 In the confines of this article I can only mention a few of the
 exhibitions. The first room contained the collections of The
 Buckinghamshire Aircraft Recovery Group; sad reminders of the
 Battle of Britain and after, wreckage of Spitfires and
 Messerschmitts, Junkers and Heinkels, dug from their inadvertent
 resting-places in the English countryside. The names of crews
 have been traced, and inscribed near what is left of their
 machines. A complete but damaged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the
 type which powered the Spitfire, shows the awful force with
 which it hit the ground.

 Further along in H-Block, the US Forces Re-Enactment Group have
 converted several rooms into part of a US Infantry base. One
 room is the GIs' bunkroom, beds made up and lockers tidy, pin-
 ups on the wall, and an old radio playing Glenn Miller. Another
 is an officer's room, with desk and maps of Europe. There is a
 quartermaster's store, and a couple of rooms of memorabilia
 pertaining to the US activities leading up to and including the
 D-Day invasion. Uniformed "GI"s were on hand to explain things -

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 19

 I noticed a present-day US senior officer engrossed in
 conversation with one of the guides.

 Leaving the Infantry, the visitor next finds himself at the
 start of the Cryptology Trail. It is very interesting to move
 along the corridors, from room to room, viewing the sequence of
 activities starting with the enemy enciphering and transmitting
 a message. The intercept room has operational HRO receivers,
 where the operators write down the Morse messages, then send the
 encoded intercepts through the telegraph exchange and motor-
 cycle dispatch riders to "Station X," as Bletchley Park was
 known. A mock-up of the registration room leads to the various
 stages of decoding and assessment prior to distribution of
 intelligence to field-commanders. Visitors can see a real Enigma
 machine, with one of the code wheels opened up to display the
 random cross-connections, a rare sight. There are also Lorenz
 and Siemens telegraph ciphering machines, for which Colossus was
 built to crack the wheel settings. The role of the pre-war
 Polish codebreakers is not forgotten, but more artifacts will be
 needed there, as perhaps also in the decoding stages after
 intercepts were registered. It is an interesting exhibition now,
 and potentially stunning when work is completed.

 Following on after the Cryptology Trail, the visitor enters the
 Computer Exhibition, staged by the Computer Conservation
 Society. It includes an almost-working Elliott 803, rescued from
 a barn, and dating from the mid-1960s. There is an IBM 1130, a
 Burroughs Visible Record accounting machine, some Digital
 equipment, and an early Sperry drum -- very heavy and parked in
 the middle of the room. One member has put on a very good
 display of equipment showing the evolution of personal computers
 from the Altair, through Northstars and other S-100 bus
 machines, to early odd-balls like the Sinclair QL. Appropriate
 peripherals and software are on display. The line ends with a
 modern 486 PC on loan from Olivetti, which is running my
 graphical simulator of the Ferranti Pegasus, thus nicely closing
 the loop back to the earliest vacuum tube machines. I had also
 provided a working nickel acoustic delay line store, dating from
 1956, storing and counting 42 bits, and requiring +300v, +200v,
 +13v, -10v, -20v, and -150v, as well as heaters and standard
 clock signals. Don't let the children get their fingers too
 close to that exhibit! For fun we also had a relay machine,
 which I had built in 1952, playing Noughts and Crosses. The Duke
 of Kent spent five or ten minutes in the Computer Exhibition,
 took a great interest and asked extremely relevant questions. It
 was a great pleasure for us manning the exhibition to see that
 we had influential support for what we were doing.

 Next to the Computer Exhibition is the Electronics and Radar
 room. A very large collection of equipment here is primarily
 familiar from the World War, and includes BC221 wave meters,
 Bendix radio compasses, and masses of British radio equipment

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 20

 and radar sets of various kinds. A Baird Televisor from about
 1933, with its rotating perforated aluminum disc and neon lamp
 behind, gives 30 lines resolution, on a picture about the size
 of a large postage stamp. It is most interesting to compare the
 manufacturing quality of the wartime military equipment made in
 various countries -- German solid and precise, US efficiently
 made and neat, Canadian a cross between US and British, and
 British, thrown together in a hurry but working in desperate
 times. It is rumored that one of the people who have staged that
 exhibition has access to 300 tons of wartime electronic
 equipment. [Ouch! -- Ed.]

 The Duke next moved to the Colossus Rebuild Room, where he met
 some of the designers, including the team leader, Dr. Tommy
 Flowers, now in his eighties and very alert and knowledgeable.
 Stacks of accumulated equipment lie on the floor. A PC running a
 CAD system is used for re-creating drawings which would have
 been hand-drawn in 1943. A prominent pile of steel channel
 sections and angle iron is ready to be cut up, drilled, painted
 and assembled for the racks of the machine. Link sockets mounted
 on beechwood strips, identical with those used in Colossus, have
 been rescued from old Strowger rural telephone exchanges. (The
 last of those exchanges will be replaced with digital electronic
 equipment and scrapped next year, which shows that the rebuild
 project is perilously near to too late even now.)

 The Royal Party then embarked on the jeeps, and other VIPs
 traveled in a 1940 bus, to see the Motor Pool, with numerous
 wartime vehicles preserved and operated by another enthusiasts
 group. He then arrived back at the Mansion, where he unveiled a
 stone tablet marking the occasion, before entering the Mansion
 to see the Winston Churchill exhibition. At last the crowds of
 guests could go round the exhibitions themselves, and into the
 welcome coolness. Those of us on the stands were now busy for
 the rest of the day meeting old friends, explaining what was on
 show, and snatching a quick look at the other exhibitions as

 What a day! It was a milestone on the long road to the Museums
 Campus, and very satisfying to all the volunteers, who had
 converged from many parts of the country to make everything
 presentable in a very short time. Particularly, the active
 members of the Trust are to be congratulated on their vision and
 hard work to get so far on almost no funds.

 Copyright (c) 1994 Chris P. Burton. All rights reserved.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 21

 California's First ARPANet Host
 by Doug Landauer, Sun Microsystems

 Aside from my brief tenure as a teenager with a newspaper route,
 every job I've ever had involved writing software. The first one
 was at UCLA, in 1969. At that time, Steve Crocker, Jon Postel,
 Vint Cerf, Charlie Kline and others were participating in the
 beginning of an experiment in the interconnection of computers --
 the SDS Sigma 7 at UCLA was going to be connected as the first
 non-BBN host on the ARPA network. BBN was (and is) Bolt,
 Beranek, and Newman, the Cambridge, Massachusetts based company
 which had the contract to provide the hardware, physical
 connections, and basic system software that formed the basis of
 the ARPA network. They built the "IMPs" (Interface Message
 Processors) which formed the homogenous substrate which was the
 key simplification that made communication possible among the
 variety of systems that were to be connected to this new
 network. (Today, BBN continues to be a flourishing business,
 with a definite presence on the Internet; they are on the World
 Wide Web as http://www.bbn.com.)

 My older brother had gone through UCLA four years before I did,
 so I had already gotten to play around with some of the other
 computer systems on campus. I was a sixteen year old freshman,
 hanging out at the UCLA Computer Club, where everyone was known
 by their initials -- my brother was CAL, I was DAL. My brother's
 friends were JAB, TG&, REG, et al. The Computer Club served as a
 combination fraternity house and office, and a home for
 socially-challenged, intellectually-gifted, literal-minded
 nerds. The club's office was in the Engineering building at
 UCLA, which has some of its entrances on the east side, where
 the fifth floor is the ground floor, and some of its entrances
 on the west side where the ground floor is where you'd expect it
 to be.

 An aside: One kid that even the clubbies treated as a geek (as
 most of them had always been treated) was this high school kid
 on some kind of high-school parole -- uh, I mean "honors" --
 program that let him spend the summer at UCLA. He was really into
 hardware, to the disdain of many of the rest of the clubbies,
 most of whom were software types. Anyway, Steve went on to make
 probably more impact on the computer industry than any other
 person in the history of the Computer Club: he invented the
 optical mouse that sits next to nearly every Sun; he founded
 Mouse Systems, Frame Technology, and (currently) Infoseek.
 Sometimes it's amazing how poor our vision can be, outside of
 our own little cliques.

 So I was loitering at the club office, along with JAB and TG&,

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 22

 when Steve Crocker and Jon Postel came in and wanted to find
 some hackers to help write some "network software". It's hard to
 convey how new and exclusive both of those words were then, and
 how novel it was to combine them! They hired the three of us, to
 share an office and write programs.

 My job was to write some initial tests just to make sure that
 the hardware worked, in the hard-wired link from the host to the
 IMP. The network was designed as a network of IMPs, so that the
 low level, long-distance communications protocols (hardware and
 software) would only need to be implemented once, on the IMPs,
 so that they would form an IMP-to-IMP network. Each kind of host
 would only need to have one kind of network driver and network
 communications software written for them -- host-to-IMP.

 Our host was a Sigma 7, a computer made by Scientific Data
 Systems. Architecturally, it was a rather ordinary 32-bit
 machine. The one most interesting feature that I still recall
 about its instruction set architecture was that the general
 purpose registers lived in the first 8 or 16 words of memory.

 There were no really dominant operating systems at the time (and
 there were *no* portable operating systems). The people in
 charge of this project decided to use a research OS from one of
 the Lawrence Labs (LLL or LBL), called "GORDO". As we added to
 this OS, we gave it a new name -- the "Sigma EXecutive" (a.k.a.,

 The disk storage on the Sigma 7 was a big silver-colored platter
 disk, mounted like a clock, with the axis horizontal. Its
 diameter was nearly a meter. We never had a serious mishap with
 it, but I always had this fear that if it somehow came off the
 end of its spindle, its edge would hit the floor, it would gain
 some traction, and would shoot off sideways, through the wall of
 the room.

 Around that time, the industry's custom was for each instruction
 set architecture to have a name for its assembly language. (My
 first program was written in IBM 1401 Autocoder, a simple
 assembly language.) The Sigma 7's assembly language was called
 "Symbol". A later upgrade brought us "Metasymbol", which I
 believe added macros (wow!).

 The Sigma had a card reader, and could boot-load from it.
 Someone (I recall it being Vint Cerf, but I could be wrong) had
 written a small boot program, which fit on one card, which could
 make the machine chirp like a bird. There was no speaker -- the
 program worked by tweaking the RF interference that leaked from
 the machine, and a small AM radio had to be placed near the CPU
 in order to hear the chirping. The program contained a triply-
 nested loop, with relatively prime loop counts. It could go on
 for days without repeating itself.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 23

 GORDO/SEX had some very interesting ideas, for the time. With
 the notable exception of Multics, most operating systems to date
 had only one- or two-level directory systems, or directories
 that only privileged users could create, or even worse -- fixed
 partitions. SEX was like Multics (and therefore UNIX, MS-DOS,
 MacOS, and nearly all currently popular operating systems) in
 that directories could contain files or other sub-directories in
 a fairly general way. Because this was a moderately new and
 relatively less popular idea than it is today, it felt like
 quite a privilege to have this kind of power available.

 SEX was unlike UNIX in that there was no such thing as an
 absolute pathname -- for the normal user. Each user could only
 get access to files that appeared to be in sub-directories under
 their home directory. So it appeared as if each user had their
 own tree-like filesystem. Except that each person had a "Post-
 Office" sub-directory, which was shared among all the users, and
 it had a "General-Delivery" sub-directory -- these two were used
 for e-mail and general file sharing. There was some kind of
 super-privileged user, or privileges that could be bestowed on
 particular users (I forget which way that worked). The
 privileged or super user could see all of the other users'
 directories, making the system look a little more like UNIX
 systems did, a few years later.

 At some point during my time there, Xerox bought SDS, turned
 them into XDS, and drove them gradually out of business. Later,
 the Sigma 7 was finally replaced with a PDP-11, on which we
 (well, they did -- I was no longer working at that job) ran an
 operating system called ELF (German for "eleven"). It didn't
 take them very long before they decided to replace that OS with
 the new, not very well-known OS called UNIX.

 So at that point, it could truthfully be said that management
 took away our SEX and made us UNIX.

 by Tom Del Rosso

 With reference to constructing a 16-bit CPU for the [Xerox] Alto
 by "stacking" four 4-bit ALU's [see July ENGINE page 11,] the
 74181 is a standard TTL part from the late 60's. It's not a CPU,
 as the 4-bit 4004 was, but only an adder, subtracter, 1's or 2's
 complementer, shift right or left mux, and logical AND, OR, XOR
 circuit. It contains no registers, and no control logic, so
 cascading it is as simple as going from Carry Out of one, to
 Carry In on the next.  Multiple 74181's share a common control
 unit with no complications.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 24

 Since it needs external control, I would have liked to hear
 about the control method - hard wired, state machine, or
 microcode; I also wonder, how many boards, and how much area.
 Great interview though. There was a lot more in there than what
 I missed.

 The 74181 is barely MSI, not LSI at all. It has around 50 gates,
 and it's not much more exciting than an octal latch. So, the
 Alto apparently was a real scratch-built machine. Yet the
 74xx181 is still in production, just like other members of the
 standard TTL family. All the usual speed/power variants, up to
 Advanced Low-power Schottky (74ALS181) are still made, with a
 relatively new functional variant, the '881.

 There are other examples of seemingly obsolete TTL parts still
 produced, like the Gray Code and Excess-3 Code converters. But
 with the increased availability of modern ASIC's, almost all of
 the TTL family must be in very small demand today.

 It is somewhat interesting, however, that the 74181 uses a
 simple circuit for each bit to compute 16 logical and 16 math
 functions, including addition and subtraction. The function is
 selected with 4 control inputs, and one logic/math mode input.
 The logical functions have the carries disabled for all bits,
 and the math functions enable carry.

 That core circuit dates 'way back; as "The Art of Digital
 Design" (by Winkel and Prosser, Prentice Hall) says, "The
 circuit [for a universal logic function generator] has long been
 known", but it isn't clear when this development was made. The
 book gives the basic one-bit circuit, and you can see the full-
 featured version, with the carries that add math functions, in
 any modern TTL data book under "74181." In essence, the basic
 circuit breaks down to a 4-input to 1-output multiplexer, whose
 2 select lines are driven by the 2 operand input bits, and whose
 4 data inputs are driven by the function control lines.

 It makes me wonder if the designers of the Alto patterned its
 instruction set after the 74181 modes. They could have run 5
 instruction bits straight into the ALU's 4 control inputs and
 logic/math mode input. Their own control circuitry might only be
 needed for controlling jumps and stack operations. The disk and
 display controllers might have been more complicated than the
 CPU control. What I'd really love to see is the Ethernet


 Our piece in July's ENGINE on plastic rot -- degradation and
 embrittlement of molded plastic parts through exposure to

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 25

 ultraviolet light and other environmental influences -- produced
 a flurry of discussion from California to the UK. The consensus
 is that much more research must be done, but that existing
 knowledge is of some use. Edward Then of Imperial College,
 London, posted to us that

 "You are right to say that [application of] xylene is not the
 best solution to the problem of yellowing in plastics. If my
 guess is right, the case of the �Apple' is made using ABS
 plastic, which would be damaged by a xylene-based solvent...."

 He promises a short article on contemporary methods of
 conserving plastics, to appear in the ENGINE soon.


 [Several ENGINE subscribers, who received electronic copies
 using America Online as a gateway, complained that the issue
 arrived in chunks with text missing from the end of one or more
 sections. We queried the service and received this reply.]

 I am writing on behalf of America Online to answer your recent
 questions about the ANALYTICAL ENGINE being truncated when

 I sincerely apologize for any inconvenience this has caused you.
 We are aware of this bug, and are feverishly working to nail it
 to the wall. The bug resides in our mail splitting routines. It
 is somewhat more destructive to documents than the line-eater
 bug of lore. We currently have 5 of our top people working on
 it. I assure you it does not target your publication alone.

 Should you have any further questions or comments, please feel
 free to write again.

 Dave Koster
 Technical Support Representative


 CHAC member James Birdsall has completed Part One of his truly
 extensive reference listing of SUN hardware. This section
 includes the Overview and CPU/Chassis detail, and as the author
 says, is intended

 "....to cover Sun-badged hardware in detail sufficient to be
 useful to buyers and collectors of used Sun hardware, much of
 which comes without documentation. Details on hardware commonly

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 26

 used with Suns, especially hardware specifically designed for
 Suns, are also included where available.

 The next several parts are currently under construction and
 include detailed jumper/switch/connector descriptions for as many
 individual boards as possible, a Sun part number list, and any
 other random facts I can dig up."

 Part One is a meticulously researched document that prints out
 to about 25 pages in single-spaced ASCII. We have made it
 available from our request daemon; to receive a copy, send e-
 mail to


 with a _subject_ line of


 and no message body. You'll receive a copy by return mail.


 Steve Roberts, muscular pioneer of mobile computing, now makes
 his occasional _Nomadness Notes_ available for remailing from
 the ENGINE request daemon. The current issue, #26, is titled
 "The Maiden Voyage of the Microship" and details the fascinating
 (and harrowing) first outing of the Sea Moss Microship mentioned
 in April's ENGINE.

 Request this two-part file by sending e-mail to


 with a _subject_ line of




 and no message body. This issue isn't computer history _per se_,
 but you'll want this vital background when Steve starts
 computerizing the Microship!

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 27


 Copies of the ENGINE, the FAQ, and project information have been
 pouring out to print and broadcast media, especially in Silicon
 Valley. We do have tearsheets of most of the ink we know about.
 But is there ink we haven't heard of? Once more, with feeling:
 If you spot any mention of CHAC or the ENGINE in any periodical,

 * If your copy of the piece is clippable, clip and mail to the
 Palo Alto address.

 * If you can't spare the physical copy, send the text as
 net.mail to cpu@chac.win.net, or photocopy and fax to the Palo
 Alto address.

 * If you're too busy for that, just send the publication name,
 date and page number and we'll do the hunting.

 Thanks! (And thanks to the spotters who have given us invaluable
 help with keeping up so far.)


 Radio, radio! CHAC's first, thoroughly enjoyable national
 broadcast exposure arrived with the June 7th _Osgood File_ on
 CBS. Charles Osgood interviewed KC primarily on the subject of
 early micros, especially our SOL-20. (See July's cover.)

 "From Glass Houses to Glass Cases," in _CIO Magazine_ for
 September 1, gives a thoroughly upbeat assessment of our
 vocation's progress. "Computer-history associations are
 springing up around the country," it asserts, "and computer
 makers are opening museums.... What's more, collectors are
 making some serious cash." Short and sweet! Also the first
 publication of our new address -- which brought in a fair amount
 of mail.

 CHAC member Tim Swenson's collection of over fifty computers was
 featured in the July 1 _Skywrighter_, newsletter of Wright-
 Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio; and Tim made sure to mention
 your Association during the interview. Thanks, Tim!

 Here's a mystery.... John Jarrell at Children's Mercy Hospital
 in Kansas City, MO, e-mailed news of "an article about CHAC in
 _Windows Sources_ recently." But no other friend of CHAC has
 corroborated the appearance, and two calls to the publishers of
 _Windows Sources_ were never returned. If any reader has a copy

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 28

 of this page, a quick fax of it to +1 415/856-9914 would be more
 than appreciated.


 It feels to us as if, having moved to Palo Alto, the CHAC has
 become much more serious. Being surrounded by institutions and
 companies like Stanford University, Hewlett-Packard, Adobe,
 Amdahl, DEC, Informix, Oracle, SUN, T/Maker, Xerox.... Frankly,
 the list seems endless, and so does the electricity of

 These places _do_ want to know about the CHAC. That's what
 they've told us! They _will_ hear our case -- that's why they've
 begun to invite us in! And they _will_ lend their support.
 That's what our faith tells us.

 But at such a time, professional appearance becomes all-
 important. The ENGINE, our handouts and correspondence, and our
 presence on the Net have to have a clean, striking look that
 helps the CHAC stand out from thousands of other nonprofits
 clamoring for attention. And on our tiny budget, that takes real

 _We_ have the ingenuity if _you_ have the money. A year's
 subscription to the hardcopy ENGINE -- by far the more popular
 edition -- pays for itself _and_ gives the CHAC twenty-five
 energetic dollars. In the heart of Silicon Valley, _making
 contact makes money work harder._

 Your subscription to the ENGINE now does more for the CHAC than
 ever before. And as you receive each new issue, you'll see that
 subscribing does more for _you_ too. With your support, the
 ENGINE will become a bigger, prettier, more comprehensive

 Please, if you've been reading the ENGINE as shareware,
 subscribe today. It's a better deal than ever.


 In July, the CHAC passed a big hurdle; our first ENGINE subs
 came up for renewal. Naturally it was only polite, as well as in
 our own interest, to let our friends know their subs had

 To begin with, paper copies for expiring subs had yellow address
 labels; electronic subscribers were notified by e-mail. _A

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 29

 colored address label, or an e-mail notice, will always be your
 first warning that your sub is ending._ If you subscribe to the
 paper edition, you'll also find a sub blank tucked into your

 Most people re-subscribed, and promptly. (Thank you all.) Some
 didn't, so on September 22 we sent out a round of nag letters.
 Those brought in most of the rest. (You too.)

 It's an industry rule of thumb that, of people who subscribe to
 a magazine for one year, 35% will subscribe for a second year.
 But of the ENGINE subscribers who were invited to subscribe
 again, _eighty-four per cent have so far._ That says a lot
 about the CHAC's friends and, we like to think, about the ENGINE

 Note to those who haven't re-upped: For a small nonprofit, nag
 letters are expensive and time-consuming. If your ENGINE sub
 expires, you get one polite reminder, one sub blank and _one_
 nag letter. After that, we assume you know where to find us!


 We hate to say it -- still more to have it said -- but this ENGINE
 is a bit thin. Despite a bold request for articles all over
 July's back cover, we never received that one extra contribution
 that would have given October some real heft.

 Now that the word "interactive" seems inseparable from CD drives
 and sound cards, we'd like to promote its older, richer and more
 personal sense. The ANALYTICAL ENGINE is an interactive
 magazine; the people who read it also must write for it, or it
 won't be here to read.

 If you like reading the ENGINE, please try your hand at an
 article. There's no pleasure quite like seeing your best efforts
 in print -- a pleasure we'll be thoroughly glad to share.



 With our nonprofit status accomplished, we can recruit an intern
 to help with typing and filing. This is in process -- we've had
 an expression of interest from one volunteer. More as it

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 30


 On August 7th the remainder of the Association's collection and
 archive -- including the two minis -- was collected from the El
 Cerrito storage and from Aaron Alpar's apartment, and moved to
 expanded storage in Redwood City. Volunteer help was crucial to
 this process, as was the apparently boundless strength and
 experience of Berkeley's Mercury Moving.

 At last everything we've acquired is secure in a central
 location, but we're now spending more on storage than we can
 afford indefinitely. It can't be said too often that WE NEED
 SPACE. We've learned in the last eighteen months that time,
 money and inspiration -- though often in short supply -- have
 always trickled in at a rate that would keep the Association
 going; but the struggle for storage is unrelenting. _Please,
 help us find a decent home for our collection._


 We intend to create a pilot public exhibit of computer hardware
 and ephemera, somewhere in the Palo Alto-Mountain View area,
 between now and next spring. This is primarily a staff training
 exercise, but we'll be delighted to provide guided tours for
 visitors. Details to be announced.


 CHAC is negotiating with two more credit-card providers, one in
 Palo Alto and one in San Diego, and we'd say our chances of
 success are improving. With luck, paying for an ENGINE sub will
 shortly be a lot easier -- especially for international
 customers. Thanks for your patience!

 Book Review:
 Dr. James E. Tomayko
 Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books, 1994
 197 pages, US$20.00 (paper)
 ISBN 1-56761-463-9

 Reviewed by Kip Crosby

 Only a few people have flown in space, and many of them are
 legendary. Only a few computers have flown in space, and most of
 them are completely obscure. Is this fair? To redress the
 balance, we need a big, breezy, copiously illustrated book

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 31

 written by someone with a reporter's persistence and a _Jeopardy_
 contestant's appetite for odd facts. Luckily, this is it.

 Spaceflight computing forces the unlikely to do the improbable
 with the insufficient. Ounces count, cubic inches vanish, and
 working conditions are dismal. (The Honeywell control computers
 for the Shuttle's main engine are bolted to the combustion
 chamber.) Parts take so long to certify that they're obsolete
 when they reach space. (The microprocessors on Galileo were RCA
 1802's -- early-seventies chips for a 1989 launch.) One bug in
 the software can result in catastrophic malfunction. (So long,
 Soviet Phobos probe.) Yet these computers routinely must be far
 more reliable than their pampered earthbound cousins. This
 thread of contradiction, of raw technical brilliance outplaying
 bizarre poverty of resources, keeps a fascinating tension in
 Tomayko's story.

 Psychological tension plays a part as well. In early suborbital
 and orbital missions -- Mercury, Gemini and Vostok -- astronauts
 and cosmonauts apparently had very little to do, except during
 takeoff and landing. Since most spacefarers are pilots foremost,
 this gave rise to a natural resentment of being "Spam in a can,"
 human supercargo included for the sake of prestige; and this
 resentment often was transferred to the computers, which were
 perceived as stealing the pilot's thunder.

 Yet, on a steady diet of abuse and ingratitude, computers
 flourished and finally became indispensable to spaceflight.
 Whether in simulation, command, navigation or information
 retrieval, these toughened boxes have become hand-in-glove
 partners of the pilots and controllers who rely on them. Jim
 Tomayko, who knows his stuff, takes his reader on a grand tour
 of the subject, starting with computer simulators, preflight
 testing, launch and mission control, then plunging into the
 history of Mercury and Gemini, Apollo, the Shuttle, and the
 unmanned probes including Viking, Ranger, Mariner, Phobos and

 This is a big job and the author brings two big advantages to
 it. The first is an easy, colloquial style, so that although the
 story has to be salted with acronyms, it always avoids the
 blockishness of manual-ese. The second is dozens on dozens of
 photos from NASA itself, IBM, JPL, Draper Labs, Lockheed, and
 many other sources, supplemented by schematics, panel drawings,
 and an occasional graph. Whenever the text even _threatens_ to
 become opaque -- bam! -- there's an illustration or a sidebar.
 Together these lift the story out of "NASA as a second language"
 into the realm of vivid, compelling technical history.
 _Computers in Space_ will be accessible to high-school students,
 yet consistently rewarding to seasoned space freaks, who will
 repeatedly mutter "[expletive,] I never knew that."

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 32

 In fact, though, this book's breadth of appeal gives rise to my
 only reservation about it. More than a textbook, not quite a
 coffee-table book, it zigzags uneasily between the two ideals.
 Occasional clinkers of stodgy phrasing are transparent attempts
 at simplicity. Italicized words and phrases are scattered
 through the text, but the typographical convention doesn't seem
 related to anything; sometimes these terms are defined as they
 occur, sometimes not. (Such definitions as are needed might have
 been better off segregated in a glossary at the back.) I suspect
 that this quirky emphasis was forced on the book by an editor,
 and it doesn't do any real harm.

 This is a good book at the right time. Read it and you'll
 understand, not only the trials and tribulations of computing in
 space, but its detective work, its leaps of faith and
 brilliance, and its civilian spinoffs, like programmed
 redundancy and fly-by-wire control. The lavish beauty and
 unrelenting detail of _Computers in Space_ make it a book you'll
 want to read avidly, then keep in your permanent library.



 This tower-case mini comes to CHAC as a deeply appreciated
 donation from Frank McConnell.

 The Model 1000, Altos' most successful product ever, was first
 released about eight years ago and has a reputation of being rock-
 solid. (Kim Naru at HP Cupertino, who sold this one, remembers
 that during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake a comparable 1000
 toppled out of its rack and kept working.) Many of these boxes
 are still in use for communications-intensive jobs such as

 This particular Altos has an Intel 386/20 CPU, 16 mb RAM, a
 140MB SCSI hard disk, 250MB SCSI cartridge tape, 13 serial ports
 installed of a possible 256, built-in Ethernet, a 5.25 floppy
 drive, a Wyse terminal, and SCO UNIX on tape. Dusty deck? Like
 heck! We might use it as an e-mail server.



 Hi there Americans!

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 33

 Found a January copy of your newsletter skulking away on a
 forgotten mainframe the other day. Must say I enjoyed it. Just
 love what you are doing to preserve the heritage of our so-new
 but yet so neglected history. I cringe when I think that the
 original Colossus and its mates were chopped up after the war
 without any attempt to preserve even one of these machines. I
 can remember a local university dismembering (in the early
 seventies) its vintage 50's computer and selling off the bits to
 local Ham radio buffs. Nobody really thought about preserving
 these things then. Just an outdated and outmoded hassle to be
 got rid of! I would love to help financially but three things
 prevent this: Our exchange rate is so poor that it take a week's
 wages to get $50, I at present cannot afford a week's wages, and
 it is becoming increasingly difficult to get money out of this
 country. But my thoughts are with you anyway!

 God bless!

 Eugene L. Griessel, Sysop, DYNAGEN


 I think the Canon Cat is version 2. Version 1 was the Swyftcard,
 a plug-in ROM card for the Apple //e that turned it into
 something Cat-like. Jef Raskin came to a Washington Apple Pi
 meeting way back when to give a presentation and demo the thing.
 It was pretty nifty, and obviously designed to be simple,
 general, and powerful. The things that stick out in my memory:

 (`) available at power-on (which was why it was in ROM). (a) No
 DOS, diskette directories, or formatting. You just stuck a disk
 in, pressed <save>, and whatever happened to be in memory at the
 time got written on the floppy in one format-and-save operation.
 (b) There was some support for telecommunications in the thing.
 (c) There was some way to escape into a FORTH-like language for
 extensions. You wrote your "source" as part of the in-memory
 document. This wasn't expected to be used by most folks. (d)
 There was some way to partition the in-memory document, so you
 could have (e.g.) a letter and an address database for mail-
 merge kinds of things.

 If I dig around I can probably find my old WAP Journals and
 maybe find a review (maybe even with a mention of the meeting).

 Frank McConnell


 There is a CDrom index of all currently manufactured electronic

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 34

 components, everything from ICs to transistors to relays and
 resistors. We have it at the U of Iowa Libraries. It runs into
 hundreds of CDroms, because they store a fax-style image of the
 data sheet for each device in the index. The problem, from the
 CHAC point of view, is that when the publisher releases updates,
 they recall the disks that have been updated, and as chips fall
 out of production, their documentation fades -- first, the data
 sheet goes, then the pinout, and so on. Still, the thing is
 useful. I've found essentially all the rare semicustom chips
 used in the PDP-8/E in the index, and in most cases, I've found
 current local distributors for the modern pin-compatible
 replacements for these chips.

 The Librarians call the product the IC-discrete database; it is
 published by Information Handling Services, 15 Inverness Way
 East, Englewood CO 80112-5704.

 Doug Jones


 Some IC databases do exist in electronic form for several
 purposes, like CAD circuit design and automated testing.
 Unfortunately, they are parts of commercial packages.

 There was even one module for the Commodore 64 by REX
 Datentechnik, which recognizes 74-series digital ICs. It even
 tells whether the chip has standard or open-collector outputs.

 The method of identifying unknown ICs is discussed in "How to
 Identify Unmarked IC's" (BP101) by Kenneth H. Recorr. ISBN 0
 85934 076 7 Bernard Babani (publishing) Ltd. 1982. Fold-out
 sheet 640 x 450 mm. Cover size 176 x 120 mm. Originally
 published as an article in "RADIO-ELECTRONICS" magazine.

 There has been several attempts made to collect and cross-
 index the IC catalogs or databases that already exist, but the
 IC Master seems to be the only large and organized project.

 Part Title: 1985
 Publication: Garden City, NY : Hearst Business Communications
 Publ. (Part): , 1985
 Mater.(Part): 2 parts <5294> s. : kuv

 The newest volume in our library seems to come in three parts:

 Title: IC MASTER : 1989
 Part Title: 1 : Integrated circuit selection guides, indexes &
 Publication: Garden City, N. Y. : Hearst Business Communication

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 35

 Publ. (Part): , 1989
 Mater.(Part): 1944 s

 Title: IC MASTER : 1989
 Part Title: 2 : Manufacturers & dist. directory, advertisers
 product index, advertisers technical data
 Publication: Garden City, N. Y. : Hearst Business Communications
 Publ. (Part): , 1989
 Mater.(Part): S. 2001-3469

 Title: IC MASTER : 1989
 Part Title: 3 : ASIC/custom & design automation, P development
 systems, microcomputer boards
 Publication: Garden City, N. Y. : Hearst Business Communications
 Publ. (Part): , 1989
 Mater.(Part): S. 4001-5064

 Without any doubt, it is the best reference for ICs. Is has
 references both by operation and part number. The main index is
 by part numbers in alphabetic order. Alas, they remove
 "obsolete" entries each year, but too soon, I would say. So, you
 need several volumes for full coverage.

 As I mentioned, also smaller attempts have been made. All my
 equivalence books come from the same source:

  International Diode Equivalents Guide (BP 108)
  Adrian Michaels
  ISBN 0 85934 083 X Bernard Babani (publishing) Ltd.
  1982. 144 pages.

  International Transistor Equivalents Guide (BP 85)
  Adrian Michaels
  ISBN 0 85934 060 0 Bernard Babani (publishing) Ltd.
  1981. Reprinted 1988. 320 pages.

  Digital IC Equivalents and Pin Connections (BP 140)
  Adrian Michaels
  ISBN 0 85934 115 1 Bernard Babani (publishing) Ltd.
  1985. 320 pages.

  Linear IC Equivalents and Pin Connections (BP 141)
  Adrian Michaels
  ISBN 0 85934 116 X Bernard Babani (publishing) Ltd.
  1985. Reprinted 1987. 256 pages.

 There are also others, each of which is touted to take advantage
 of "the latest computerized techniques".

 Their address is:

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 36

  Bernard Babani (publishing) Ltd.
  The Grampians
  Shepherds Bush Road
  London W6 7NF

 Jouko Valta


 Archive-Name: auto/sci.electronics/ftp-site-with-16-000-circuit-

 It seems to me that at least half of the posting here are
 concerned with circuit-related questions. Many would be answered
 by a database that we have recently mounted on an anonymous ftp
 site. The database contains the following features:

 -SHAREWARE (requires registration for continued use or

 -menu-driven front end to allow searches on devices and keywords
 on titles or circuit abstracts

 -dBASE-compatible format for those wishing to search other

 -references to >16,000 articles/papers containing practical
 electronic circuit designs, from >350 different

 -availability of photocopy/fax of most original articles (author
 registered with CCC [Copyright Clearance Center])

 -covers virtually every field of science and technology

 -updates (annually or semi-annually, depending on response)

 To download, ftp to gaitlab1.uwaterloo.ca and log in as
 "anonymous". The main database (~3M PKZIPped, ~10M after
 PKUNZIPping) is contained under /pub/circuits/main
 A smaller demo version (if you want to try it first) is under

 Be sure to give a bin command before getting these files.

 Suggestions, comments, questions and any other feedback would be

 Peter Sawatzky

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 37


 There were two flavors of Portable: the HP 110, called the
 Portable, and something else of unknown model called the
 Portable Plus. Neither was PC compatible (nor were they HP 150
 compatible, which was widely regarded as a bonehead move,
 although both would run plain-jane MS-DOS applications). Both
 came out of the Corvallis Portable Computing Division.

 I had access to a couple of Portables at my previous job at
 University of Maryland. They didn't get enough use (they were
 check-out-able) to entice us into trying further experiments
 with portable computers until after HP had dropped the Portable
 Plus, so I don't know much about the Plus. Last time I was back
 there I noticed that one of the Portables was still back in the
 datacomm room with a cable I'd made for it so it could be
 plugged into most of the asynchronous modems we had for a quick

 The Portable was a little laptop-of-sorts (really smaller than
 most laptops, more like a thick notebook) with an 80C86 CPU,
 80x16 non-backlit LCD display, keyboard with somewhat
 abbreviated key travel and 1-key rollover, 300 baud modem,
 serial port, and HP-IL interface loop. It had enough ROM to hold
 MS-DOS 2.something, PAM, MemoMaker (for simple word processing),
 Lotus 1-2-3 (version 1A, I think), a terminal emulator with
 XMODEM support, and probably some other stuff that I've since

 When I first got the 95LX palmtop I was reminded very strongly
 of the Portable -- they both did about the same sorts of things
 in as small a package as was practical for the technology of the
 day, and both used execute-in-place ROM code to maximize
 available RAM. But I'm getting off track....

 The Portable had enough RAM (512KB?) that you could split it
 between the RAM disk and system RAM and still get stuff done.
 (You could move the partition.) If you really needed more disk
 space, or needed to exchange files, there was a battery-powered
 3.5" drive (the 9114) that could connect up via HP-IL. You could
 also hook a printer (ThinkJet) up that way.

 Once upon a time I took the Portable and disk home to do some
 Pascal programming (using the HP-supplied Microsoft Pascal
 compiler). I never tried this again, for several reasons:

 (a) The disk was dog slow. Given that HP-IL is a two-wire serial
 loop, this isn't too surprising.

 (b) The display, not being backlit, worked fine in full daylight
 or an office with good fluorescent lighting. In my poorly-lit

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 38

 bedroom I had a choice between not having enough light to see
 what was on the screen, or having enough light with too much
 glare to see what was on the screen.

 (c) The keyboard had a short travel and 1-key rollover -- it was
 uncomfortable to use at first, and once I got used to it, it
 dropped characters on me. Grrr.

 That said, there's still a lot of people who swear by these
 machines; they hold up to abuse very well, and if you can get
 what you want to fit in the machine itself most of the time (and
 have good light to work in) they're relatively hassle-free.

 The Portable Plus had some other goodies, like 80x24 display,
 more RAM, and a couple of ROM drawers in which you could install
 applications. I remember thinking that this would probably have
 been a lot better for us because we could have got WRQ's
 Reflection (HP terminal emulation) in one of those ROM drawers.
 (No, the built-in datacomm program didn't emulate an HP terminal
 beyond doing ENQ/ACK flow control.)

 I also recall that there was a third party who would modify the
 display on the Plus to include a backlight. Of course, this cost
 you running time as the battery drained that much more quickly.

 Frank McConnell


 How would you describe the difference between the histories you
 publish and those published in the _Annals_? As you know from my
 flyer on the Commercial Computing Museum, I'm a grass-roots
 kinda guy and I'm trying to preserve the grass-roots history of
 a typically very complex subject matter. Your pub, and David's
 [_Historically Brewed_] too, are so important that I don't see
 them as amateur compared to the _Annals_; they are instead
 another side of the same history.

 Because you've included mention of my work several times I want
 to make sure you understand that my museum would be a private,
 for profit venture.

 My book will be available in September. There are ad's in the
 next issues of the _Annals_ and _HB_. What does a computer
 collector do when he's done his book? He's begins his new online
 service for collectors called the Online Computer Collector's
 Marketplace. Will it be on the Internet? Nope, not until I can
 finance my own WWW server and anyway there are way more people
 out there with PC's and modems than there are with USENET id's.
 Will it run on a PC as a BBS? Nah, it would be hypocritical to
 buy n'sell old computers on a Pentium, so the Marketplace will

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 39

 run off a multi-user MAI, Honeywell, or GEAC (remember good ol'
 GEAC?). I'll send you more material on this system in October.

 Thank you for your attention. Take care and be full of care.

 Kevin Stumpf


 Andrew Robertson asked:

  1.) Which were the first computers to use microprogrammed
      architectures as opposed to hardwired architectures?

 Babbage's analytical engine was to be microprogrammed. The
 prototype mill (CPU) for the engine, built by his son around a
 century ago was microprogrammed. This machine is currently
 housed in the Science Museum in London. The microprogram was
 stored on a music-box mechanism, right next to the hand crank on
 the lower right side of the mill.

 Microprogramming was reinvented in the 1950's by Wilkes. The
 technology that made microprogramming of electronic computers
 feasible in the 50's but not in the 40's was the widespread
 availability of inexpensive solid state switching diodes -- early
 microprograms were stored on hand-wired diode matrices. Read
 "Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer" by Wilkes.

 Microprogramming was reinvented again in the 1960's by the
 people at Hewlett Packard who developed the 9100 calculator.
 Computer Structures, Readings and Examples, by Bell and Newell
 covers this in one chapter. Don't confuse this early 1970's book
 with the later edition! The two editions of this book are
 essentially different! Any computer historian needs to have both

  3.) Which were the first computers to use paging of RAM or
      ROM memory?

 Atlas, built by Ferranti, was the first machine to support
 demand paged virtual memory, where page faults led to the
 transfer of pages between core memory and drum. This is a 1960
 technology! The key papers on this were: "The Atlas Supervisor,"
 by Kilburn and Payne, in the proceedings of the 1961 Eastern
 Joint Computer Conference, and "The Atlas Scheduling System," in
 _The Computer Journal_, 1962, page 238. If you look in Bell and
 Newell, you'll find this reprinted.

 Of course, the word paging is ambiguous, as it also refers to an
 address space expansion technique, as used, for example, on
 machines as varied as the 6800, the PDP-8, the DDP 516 and the

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 40

 SDS 930. On these, the direct address field of an instruction
 couldn't address all of memory, so memory was divided into
 pages. Direct addresses referred only to locations on the
 current page, as determined by the high bits of the program
 counter. Indirect addresses could reference any memory location.

 Again, Bell and Newell contains the answers you want!

 Doug Jones


 I bought this book in the computer museum in Boston, and I think
 it's worth $14.95. It contains photos (partially in a poor
 quality) of many (perhaps 50%) of the computers, and short
 summary of the systems: in most cases CPU-type, clock rate
 memory size and kind of periphery. No technical details.

 There is also a collector's value, but I don't know if that
 makes sense: here in Germany I can find an Osborne 1 on one flea
 market for $25 with full docs, and on the next for about $1000.

 There are two lacks in my eyes in this book: There is no
 description of the Intersil IM 6100 single board computers, the
 Intersil 6960 sampler and the Intercept Junior system. Only on
 page 41 is a short description of the Intersil IM6100 with a
 serial interface; I think he is speaking about the Intersil
 sampler without having any information about it. But it is
 probably impossible to list every microcomputer system that ever

 The second, more severe lack is the complete absence of the
 early development systems: Intel Intellec 4 / 40 / 8 and 8-80,
 NSC Pacer, Signetics Twin and so on. They should be included in
 such a book, because they are certainly available on flea
 markets and in surplus stores and they are worth to be

 The main value of this book is for identifying an unknown micro
 computer system which is announced without any other
 information: 'Xitan Alpha 2 to sell, no information available'.

 Klemens Krause
 Universitaet Stuttgart


 Does anyone know of a good book where I can find some
 reading material on the early commercial software industry,

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 41

 going back to the early 1960's and 1970's?

 Obviously this would be mostly mainframe and some mini-
 companies, such as Computer Sciences Corporation or Management
 Science Atlanta, etc...

 I am doing some research in this area and I am finding that
 while there is a lot of stuff on hardware companies at that time
 (particularly IBM), no one seems to have documented much on the
 software industry (not hackers but legit businesses) until
 micro-computers rolled around in 1976. Any suggestions or ideas?

 Robert Dubicki


 Paper, that is. You get a giant roll, 8-1/2" wide by very long
 on a one inch core. How long? The OD of the roll is 4-5/8" and
 it weighs about 3.5 lbs. We are not about to unroll it and
 measure but it is a lot. [I think it was 300 feet. -- Ric] It is
 Comcode No. 400 214 110 and the stuff they used to print
 teletypes and telexes on. They still may, for all we know. Try
 it for a group project drawing a frieze for the classroom. Or a
 "Happy Birthday, Grandma!" banner. Or mount it on a rod near the
 telephone as an endless message pad.

 22261 Paper Roll, 8-1/2" wide $3.50/each

 Address: American Science and Surplus
  3605 Howard Street
  Skokie IL 60076

 Order phone: 708-982-0870 (0800-1750 CDT)

 $10 minimum plus shipping charges ($4.50 on up to $20 order)

 Eric (Ric) Werme


 Here's a little bit of extra info about Smoke Signal
 Broadcasting that I can contribute. Their address in 1977 was:

  Smoke Signal Broadcasting
  P.O. Box 2017
  Hollywood, CA 90028
  (Phone: 213-462-5652)

 By the end of 1978, it was:

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 42

  Smoke Signal Broadcasting
  31336 Via Colinas
  Westlake Village, CA 91361
  (Phone: 213-889-9340)

 I think that they kept the latter address for a while. As Kip
 says, their boards and systems were fully compatible with the
 SWTPC (Southwest Technical Products Corporation) SS-50 bus. This
 was a pretty cool bus which competed with the S-100 bus in its
 day - the most interesting thing about it, to me, is the fact
 the SWTPC motherboards had twin rows of 25 fairly thick pins,
 rather than a card-edge socket like S-100 machines. The SWTPC
 boards then had the sockets/connectors for these pins. A
 reasonable number of other companies, besides SWTPC and Smoke
 Signal Broadcasting, also made boards and other add-ons for SS-
 50 bus systems.

 At any rate, most of the early Smoke Signal Broadcasting (SSB,
 from here on) offerings were add-ons for SWTPC systems, such as
 a floppy disk system (Basic Floppy Disk System - BFD-68) that
 came with patches for SWTPC BASIC and the resident
 editor/assembler, a 16K static memory board (M-16A), various
 configurations of EPROM boards (P-38) with an external power
 supply kit, an external EPROM programmer (POP-1), and later
 floppy drive subsystems like the 8" LFD-68 single and double
 floppy systems. Slightly later (mid/late 1978?), they offered
 complete systems called the "Chieftain", as Kip mentioned. At
 least originally, these were 6800 systems - maybe they used
 6809s later. The Chieftain I used 5.25" floppies, while the
 Chieftain II used 8" disks. They both ran DOS68, Smoke Signal's
 disk operating system, and came standard with 32K of memory
 (expandable to 64K), a 9-slot motherboard, and a cabinet
 finished in leather-grain, which (I guess) was in keeping with
 their Native American motif and logo. I really don't know
 anything about their later systems.

 Smoke Signal Broadcasting also offered software, such as a 6800
 FORTRAN compiler. The software ran under DOS68 on SSB systems,
 and came with a copy of DOS68 and hardware mods (?) for SWTPC
 system owners. I assume that SWTPC system owners who ran SSB
 software had to run DOS68 rather than SWTPC OS's such as FDOS or

 Bill von Hagen, wvh@transarc.com


 [Queries are sorted by subject, and within that, by model if

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 43

 If the person querying has permitted us to publish an e-mail
 address, we have done so, and please reply directly to it;
 otherwise, reply to cpu@chac.win.net or the Palo Alto address,
 and we will store and forward.


 I've just had an Apricot PC XI come into my possession. It's a
 8088 based machine similar to an IBM PC, but not 100%
 compatible. According to the documentation that came with it
 there exists a program for it called IBM, which would allow it
 to run PC software. Not surprisingly this program didn't come
 with it.

 Does anybody have this software? Please email me if you can

 Many thanks,

 Bob Entwhistle, bob@wimpol.demon.co.uk

 ATARI 400

 The very first computer I ever owned and operated was the ATARI
 400. I had it fully equipped, with a thermal printer, 300 baud
 modem, and a tape drive. A few years ago I sold it at a garage
 sale, after I had moved onto bigger and better systems
 (Commodore 64, ATARI 1040ST). Unfortunately, I miss the classic
 video games that I had with it: Pac Man, Dig Dug, Star Raiders,
 Pole Position, just to name a few. I know a few of these games
 were ported to the IBM compatibles, but the only ones I've come
 across are ancient and don't take advantage of VGA graphics and
 Sound Blaster sound. Are there any high quality versions of the
 classic video games we grew up on, or am I going to have to buy
 an old ATARI?


 Justin Davenport, justinad@vt.edu


 Does anyone know the birthdates of Bill Atkinson, Ted Nelson,
 Peter Vogel (Fairlight Music Workstation inventor) or James
 Moorer (3-D analysis of music waveforms at Stanford in the
 70's)? I'm putting together a timeline project and having
 trouble tracking these down.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 44

 Thanks in advance.

 Dave Williams, dwilliam@ilstu.edu


 I'm trying to refurbish a B 91, in particular I'm looking for a
 CMS bootable disk.

 Anyone know where such a beast can be found?

 Thanks all,

 Eric -B91- Salem


 I have had a VIC-20 since '82, but I haven't touched it for
 about 8 years now. The problem is that at that time I *knew*
 everything so I didn't write it down. Later I have been through
 University, work and lots of different machines, and my
 knowledge about VIC-20 has gone beyond reach.

 I bought a "turbo tape" for it (from England), but the
 instructions are gone after various moves. This was an add-on
 chip (cartridge). I have an expansion board with 5 slots, 32K
 RAM, debugger, graphics, games, ... I can manually set which
 memory locations the RAM should use.

 Thus for the turbo tape I need to know what memory location it
 is at, where it starts (the memory location to "sys ...") and
 instructions for use. I remember something about "<-L ...", and
 then there was something different for fixed-location files.
 Instructions for the assembler-part would be nice too. I need
 this to be able to run "old" programs and games that I have on
 tape. Information will be greatly appreciated! (or pointers to

 Bjorn Halvor Solberg


 In trying to rescue an original Compaq portable (2 FD, 512K)
 from a date with the salvage company, I seem to have run into a
 bit of a problem. Apparently my Compaq has BIOS revision B, a
 fairly early revision. Because of this, I am experiencing three
 big problems:

 1. I am limited to 544K of memory.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 45

 2. I can't seem to get any rev of DOS later than 3.0 to boot.
 3. It steadfastly refuses to look at the nice WD1002 and disk
 I found for it. :-(

 According to Compaq tech support, a Rev. C BIOS or later will 
 fix problem 1. (They couldn't tell about the other two.) 
 Unfortunately, BIOS upgrades for the original portable are no 
 longer available. :-( I have even tried one of the larger 
 aftermarket BIOS dealers and was told the same thing.

 By some chance, does anyone have a Rev. C BIOS from a Compaq 
 portable or Compaq Plus that has gone on to meet its maker? As 
 an alternative, I have access to an EPROM programmer; is there 
 anyone out there who could send me a dump of the BIOS. (BTW, 
 what kind of EPROM would I need?) ....I am willing to prove that 
 I do, in fact, own the Compaq.

 As a sort of alternative, a long time ago, when I bought my 
 first XT disk upgrade, I seem to remember a utility disk coming 
 with it. On this disk was a sort of "pre-boot" utility that 
 would allow original IBM PC's (not XT's) which had old BIOSes to
 see and to boot from an HD. Would anyone still happen to have 
 such a program lying around?

 Thanks in advance...

 John Ruschmeyer


 Can anyone give me a short history/status on Computer Automation
 computers? Their mini was used as process controller on many of 
 the Korad Lasers that I worked on during the late 70's. I 
 haven't seen their equipment used or advertised lately.

 Michael Robertson


 I have one completely working CTC Datapoint 2200 "PC" and would 
 like to get some software and documentation to it. I bought 
 ($0.2) this machine from local paper mill where it was used for 
 warehouse book-keeping and inventory from 1975 to 1993. Nowadays 
 there is a HP mainframe/Reflection/Windows combination doing 
 (well, if those 386 PCs had to be replaced with 486s, you can 
 draw your own conclusion) this job.

 Other than that book-keeping program, I don't have any other 
 material for this boat anchor and would be interested getting 
 some sort of operating system, etc. for it. I would also like to 

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 46

 see those articles mentioned couple of days ago in these 
 magazines: American Heritage of Invention & Technology, fall 
 1994 and Analytical Engine, January.

 Some notes about this overweight typewriter to those not 
 familiar with it: it is a complete computer including a 
 keyboard, a green CRT and two cassette drives. This one has got 
 whopping 12 kilobytes of RAM (16 max) on three 15x20 cm "SIMMs". 
 There are _fifteen_ printed circuit boards in it and the cooling
 plate is adequate for a dozen of Pentiums. Also those logics on 
 cassette drives would make your ordinary tape deck jealous.

 If you can help, please contact following address, thanks.

 Jari Porhio, eppu@cc.tut.fi


 Has anyone out there used the "Noisemaker" card on an S-100 or 
 Apple II system? 

 Does anyone have the application note that engineers at General 
 Instruments (now Microchip), possibly on an unofficial basis, 
 issued on the AY-3-8910 sound chip? They also produced a 28-pin 
 '8912 which didn't have the I/O port. I have heard that the 
 '8910 was actually developed by Western Digital, and that W.D. 
 engineers may really have been responsible for the Application 
 Note; I have not been able to confirm this. 

 What I'm looking for is not the Data Sheets. This Application 
 Note was put together by some engineers; it's 40 pages or more, 
 and it's typewritten with hand-drawn drawings. It's not typeset. 

 I'm looking for information on making better-sounding sounds, 
 besides simple beep tones. I want to make it sound like a bell 

 Boston-Baden, hazel-chaz@netcom.com


 I'm looking for any information you might have about the 
 Incompatible Time-sharing System. If you have manuals or any 
 documentation what so every available online, please get in 
 touch with me. Pointers to any (paper) documentation are also 

 Mikael Cardell, mc%closet@lysator.liu.se

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 47



 Has anyone had any in-depth experience with Memotech's machines? 
 I have a MTX 512 non-disk unit. The machine was also
 available with floppy and/or hard disk configuration (although 
 as I recall, that version had a separate box for the computer 
 and a separate keyboard. Mine is the 'all-in one' version with 
 the RF modulator. I was wondering if this machine could utilize 
 the CP/M supplied with the disk system. There were some other 
 differences besides the disk controller. The disk units had 80 
 column cards and also one-channel sound (as opposed to the 3-
 channel sound in this version). Didn't the disk units have the
 same TI sound chip? Am I having a dream thinking it wouldn't be 
 too hard to run CP/M on this?

 Any one has any appropriate technical documents for the MTX?

 Petteri Jantti, pjx@ichaos.nullnet.fi 


 Whatever happened to Monte Davidoff, the third member of the 
 triumvirate that developed Altair BASIC for MITS? Davidoff was a 
 classmate of Bill Gates at Harvard and he wrote the floating-
 point math routines for the BASIC interpreter that was sold for 
 the MITS Altair 8800 computer. 



 I have recently purchased an original Osborne 1 computer. I have 
 no boot disk and am currently looking for one. This computer 
 came with no book of any kind. If you have any info or know of 
 an archive I can get some software from it would be appreciated.

 Thanks in advance.

 Todd Walsh, icswalsh@world.std.com


 I am interested in corresponding with anyone out there who has 
 had personal experience with the PDP-10, either using TOPS-10 or 
 TENEX. Reply to me by e-mail....or by Ma Bell (202) 357-2828. 
 Anyone know where I could look at or obtain TOPS-10 or TENEX 
 manuals? Xeroxes would be OK; I'll even do the Xeroxing myself.

 Paul Ceruzzi

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 48


 I just rescued a pair of PDP11/03-Ls from Certain Doom. My next 
 question is the obvious, "Now what?" Does anyone have any info 
 on these? I would like to get them working and set up, but I 
 don't know anything about them. Any information or pointers to 
 information would be greatly appreciated, as would any manuals 
 anyone could find...

 As for the machines themselves, they each have a CPU unit, a 
 dual 8" floppy drive, and two (5M?) disk packs which I can't seem
 to get open. Under the CPU unit is another weird unit with a 
 whole bunch of DB25 (serial?) connectors growing out of it. Is 
 this for terminals? That's my guess, because the machine doesn't 
 seem to have a designated "console".

 The person I got them from didn't have a lot of information, but 
 said they run RSTS.

 Any info on how to get these beasts to boot, or where to get 
 software for them, would be greatly appreciated!

 Mark D. Roth, roth@uiuc.edu


 I'd love to correspond with people who used the PDP 11/60, 
 RSTS/E, RT-11 or who own and use a DECmate. Those where the 

 David Moisan, N1KGH
 86 Essex St. Apt #204
 Salem. MA 01970-5225


 If anyone has a M7555 (RQDX3), M8639-YA (RQDX1), or M8639-YB 
 (RQDX2) QBus module that needs a good home, I have a MicroPDP-11 
 that could sure use it. I need a card to control the RX50 and 
 RD52 in order to get it back in working order.

 While I'm at it...If anyone has a MicroPDP-11 back panel (I have 
 no idea what these look like) please let me know. The MicroPDP I 
 have seems to have been de-installed by ripping the back panel 
 off and snipping all the serial lines. The back panel is nowhere 
 to be found.

 Any and all help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 49

 Seth J. Morabito, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; 


 I am looking for the address or phone number of Pertec Computer 
 Corp. or any info about them. They were located in Los Angeles, 
 CA, in the 1980's. They bought the MITS company that made the 
 Altair microcomputer, but I can't find Pertec now.

 Did someone buy them out? or did they go bankrupt?

 Can anyone provide any leads? Thanks very much.

 Mark Greenia, Lexikon Services


 Amongst my array of archaic computers I have 2 Rockwell AIM-65 
 single board computers (one with FORTH ROMs!). I really never did
 anything with these beasts because I have no peripherals for 
 them etc. what other accessories were out for this "toy"? Is 
 there any way I can connect a terminal to it so I no longer have 
 that miserable 24-character bubble LED readout?

 Does anyone have any AIM trivia/folklore etc.?

 Jonathan Disegi


 I still have a Sharp portable sitting in the attic, which uses 
 bubble memories for storage. The bubble memories are contained 
 in a small blue metal case, with a 30-pin card-edge (female) 
 connector and a small reflective patch on the side, which you 
 can cover with a piece of masking tape to make it read-only. The 
 type number of these is CE-100BF. Does anyone know more about 
 these memory modules, or the portable that uses them? I think it 
 came with MS-DOS 2.11 in ROM.

 Marcel Melters, mac@mcc.iaehv.nl


 I'm interested in what factors led to the development of Silicon 
 Valley as we know it today. Some factors would be the close 
 proximity of Stanford, the early location there of high tech 

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 50

 companies like HP, etc. Eventually there was a landslide of co-
 location. Did the government of California play any role in the
 development? Do folks consider "America's Technology Highway"
 (Rte. 128) near MIT to be comparable in scope and/or origins?

 If people could help me out by pointing out any books, articles, 
 etc. or opinions on the subject I'd appreciate it. I'd also 
 appreciate any suggestions about a better place to post or ask 
 these questions.

 Thanks very much,

 Steve, squeegee@cris.com


 Some days ago I bought one old Sony NetStation (NEWS-1850). This 
 machine works fine for me, but I'm becoming tired of recompiling
 all the stuff that I find useful on newer Un*xes, so some
 questions raised:

 1) Are there any archives on the net holding software
  and information about these machines?

 2) Are there any mailing-lists and/or newsgroups related
  to Sony's?

 Any hints welcomed.

 Guido Thater, gt@sky.gun.de


 I'm looking for sources (FORTRAN or C) to a version of the 
 classic "Star Trek" written at the University of Texas. I played 
 it in 1982 or so on their CDC mainframe, and I've seen it on a 
 VAX as well.... Mail or posts will be welcome. 


 Doug McNaught, Towson State University


 Anyone remember a programmable terminal that TI marketed around 
 1974 or so? It had dual cassette drives and a rather powerful 
 (but syntactically simple) programming language that allowed it 
 to do just about anything you could ask of a small computer of 
 the era. 

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 51

 I contracted with a small outfit that intended to sell these as 
 general purpose computers to do some programming -- I think the
 only other programmer they had was a smart 12-year-old, which
 should have told me something.

 Anyway, I had contracted to write a text formatter, which I did, 
 but they seemed to be on such tenuous financial ground that I 
 bailed out of the project before I had it all debugged. Just as 
 well, as real desktop computers with useful software were just 
 around the corner. (Still, I should have rewritten that 
 formatter for CP/M and made, oh, about $500 in royalties...;-) )

 Anyone remember this box? And did anyone else write any code for 

 Michael J. Edelman


 A friend of mine needs a boot disk for a TRS-80 Model 4 
 computer. If you have one and would like to help out please 
 contact me via private EMail. If you have any other software 
 laying around for the TRS-80 please also contact me, so I can 
 relay it to him. Thanks...



 Can anyone out there give me a list (and description) of the 
 instruction set of either (or both) the TX-0 and the PDP-1. I 
 believe there are some similarities since the PDP-1 incorporated 
 some of the TX-0's features when it was designed. I have DEC's 
 book "Digital at Work" which gives a basic summary of both 
 machines, but I would like MUCH more detail if possible. Anyone 
 who knows anything about either of these machines, or who can 
 point me to a FAQ will be much appreciated. Thanks!

 Don Congdon


 Where can I get a short history of the Commodore/Sirius/Victor 
 lineage? My Victor VI is a jump-wired nightmare. A friend who 
 worked for Victor (in Scotts Valley, California) tells me that 
 at one point, they had a 50% out-of-the-box failure rate!

 Kenneth Freeman, San Diego, CA

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 52


 I have come across a couple of ancient Wang laptop computers,
 V30 IBM compatibles with 10 meg hard drives and built-in


 1. One has a dead hard drive. It is a SCSI. Does the Wang laptop 
 use a standard SCSI drive?

 2. They have an external port to connect a floppy drive. it
 appears to be SCSI also. But it said I had a block size error
 when I tried to connect my Seagate drive to it. And when I
 connected the floppy to my ST-02 controller on my XT, it ignored

 Where can I find drivers...

 Maxwell Froedge

 XEROX 1108

 I just bought a <<supposedly>> working Xerox 1108 Lisp 
 workstation. However, I was not given instructions on how to 
 boot the system...I held down both the Reset and Alt keys on the 
 front panel, and I heard some hard disk activity for a minute, 
 but then the numeric LED display started flashing 0201 -- what
 does this mean? Is it an error? Plus, when I turn the computer 
 on, the screen is completely blank -- does it stay this way until
 it is booted?

 I am desperate to get this thing running...thanks a lot!

 Jonathan Disegi


 "Practicing Safe Software," Billy Goodman, _Air & Space
 Smithsonian_, September 1994, p. 60ff. Behind-the-scenes of 
 Apollo mission software development and debugging, with 
 attention to the careers of John Norton, Margaret Hamilton and 
 John Garman.

 "ASAP Legends: Douglas Engelbart," Owen Edwards, _Forbes ASAP_,
 October 10, 1994, pp. 130-1. A brief appreciation of the 
 inventor of the mouse and much else. Good photo.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 53

 "Unix at 25," Peter H. Salus, _Byte_, October 1994, pp. 75ff. A
 rich and anecdotal history of Unix from Multics to Mach and 
 beyond; derived from Salus' new book, _A Quarter-Century of
 UNIX_ (Addison-Wesley)

 "Unforgettable Grace Hopper," J. A. N. Lee, _Readers' Digest_,
 October 1994, pp. 181ff. A summary of the Admiral's long and
 varied career, including folkloric detail like the famous 
 nanosecond wire.


 [Omissions are inadvertent and regretted; we're still getting
 snail-mail by the bagful from our old address.]

 _An Annotated Bibliography of the History of Data Processing_. 
 James W. Cortada; Greenwood Press, Westport CT, 1983. 215 pp. 
 From Kevin Frank.

 "A Brief History of the Rice Computer, 1959-1971." Adam Thornton
 and Joel Cyprus. Draft, 35 pp. A history of the computer built 
 at the Rice Institute (later Rice University) in the late 1950's
 to provide computing power comparable to Los Alamos' MANIAC II.
 From Adam Thornton.

 Charles Babbage Institute NEWSLETTER, Volume 16 Number 4, Summer 
 1994. New CBI director Bob Seidel; Griswold papers; Tomash 
 Fellowship; INRIA conference; Fortieth anniversary of NORC; 
 more. 8 pp. From Judy O'Neill.

 _IICS Chapter Notes_, newsletter of the International 
 Interactive Communications Society. April 1994; July 1994, 12 
 pp. News and calendars of San Francisco Bay Area activity in 
 multimedia. From Sheila Farrell.

 _The Mathematical Intelligencer_, Volume 16 Number 3, Summer 
 1994. Articles on the history and culture of mathematics. US$39 
 or equivalent per year (four issues). From Chandler Davis, 
 University of Toronto.

 _The Z-Letter_, newsletter of the CP/M and Z-System community. 
 Number 32, July/August 1994. Kildall obituary; Pascal programs; 
 Echelon; new 22DISK; Software testing; correspondence, resources 
 and technical discussion. 22 pp. US$18 for 12 issues (2 years); 
 Canada/Mexico, US$22; International, US$36. From David A. J. 

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 54


 Charles Babbage Institute, 103 Walter Library, 117 Pleasant 
 Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Judy E. O'Neill, associate 

 The Computer Museum, 300 Congress Street, Boston MA 02210. Brian 
 C. Wallace, curator of historical computing.

 Historical Computer Society, 10928 Ted Williams Place, El Paso 
 TX 79934. CompuServe 100116,217. David A. Greelish, director and 

 International Association of Calculator Collectors, 10445 
 Victoria Avenue, Riverside CA 92503. Guy Ball, Bruce L. Flamm, 

 International Interactive Communications Society, 2601 Mariposa 
 Street, San Francisco CA 94110. Sheila Farrell, membership 

 Lambda Software Publishing, 149 West Hilliard Lane, Eugene OR 
 97404. David A. J. McGlone, editor and publisher.

 _The Mathematical Intelligencer_, Springer-Verlag New York, 175 
 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Chandler Davis, editor-in-

 Unusual Systems, 220 Samuel Street, Kitchener, Ontario N2H 1R6, 
 Canada. Kevin Stumpf, president.


 Aaron Alpar, Joann Green, Bill Matison of Extra Storage, Frank 
 McConnell, and Mercury Moving for Mini Rescue II.

 Allen Baum for a shoeboxful of wonderful docs including CDC 
 6600, DEC PDP-8, Fairchild MSI, HP 2100, IBM 1620 and 
 System/360, Motorola 6800, TENET, Varian 520/i, 620/i and 
 620/L.... (All in a shoebox! Really!)

 Leigh Buchanan for our concise but comprehensive appearance in 

 Phyllis Cangemi for her donation.

 Robin Donald for early _PC Magazines_ including Volume I, Number 

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 55

 Kevin Frank for the Cortada bibliography, plucked out of a 
 university library discard pile. Eternal vigilance....

 Jon Herron at AE Press for his usual nice job on the ENGINE, and 
 in a hurry!

 Gail Lee for first-class coordination and taping of the _Osgood 
 File_ episode.

 Jim Lundy and Doug Abramson of Worldspan L. P. for trying to get 
 your Managing Editor a ticket to London in time for the 
 Bletchley Park dedication. If it hadn't been World Cup summer!

 Frank McConnell (again) for purchasing, donating, _and storing_ 
 our new, potent and classy Altos mini.

 Tony Napolitan, Henry Lowood and Robin Rider for working 

 Bill von Hagen for his donation.


 Oh, well! Presumably _some_ of the seventeen people who've
 promised to write articles will come through by January! These 
 are just the details that make an editor's life so interesting!


 The ANALYTICAL ENGINE is intellectual shareware. Distribution of 
 _complete, verbatim_ copies through online posting, Internet 
 mail or news, fax, postal service or photocopying is encouraged 
 by the Computer History Association of California.

 Excerpting or brief quotation for fair use, including review or 
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 ENGINE by permission shall not be used in another periodical or 
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 Alterations, abridgments or hacks of the ANALYTICAL ENGINE which 
 change the intent or meaning of original content; or which 
 contrive to bring income to any person or organization other 
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 contrive to injure the Computer History Association of 
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 are PROHIBITED. Reproduction of the ANALYTICAL ENGINE without 
 its subscription coupon is abridgment in this sense.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 56


 The ANALYTICAL ENGINE solicits manuscripts of 750 to 2500 words 
 on the general topic of the history of computing in, or with 
 significant reference to, the State of California. Articles 
 should focus on one interesting or illuminating episode and 
 should be written for a technically literate general audience. 
 Submissions are welcome from both members and non-members of the 
 CHAC. Article deadlines are the fifteenth of each month prior to 
 publication: June 15 for the July issue, September 15 for the 
 October issue, December 15 for the January issue, and March 15 
 for the April issue. 

 Each author may publish a maximum of one signed article per 
 year. This restriction does not apply to letters, queries or 
 interviews. Thank you for cooperating to protect diversity of 
 voices and topics. Previously published material will be 
 republished only in clearly attributed quotations or citations; 
 or when its publication in the ANALYTICAL ENGINE will bring it 
 to the attention of a significantly broader audience; or when 
 the original publication is materially obsolete or inaccessible.

 Decision of the editors is final but copyright of all published 
 material will remain with the author.

 The preferred document file format is Microsoft Word for DOS or 
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 will be acceptable. Submit manuscripts on DOS 5.25" or 3.5", or 
 Mac HD (1.4) diskettes. Alternatively, please send your article 
 as ASCII or ISO Internet mail. Please avoid submitting on paper 
 unless absolutely necessary.


 Always remember that, if you're expecting an ANALYTICAL ENGINE
 and you don't get one, we want to know about it. Pronto.

 During the rest of this year we'll be working to make e-mail
 delivery more robust; and it does seem that the USPS has finally 
 learned to treat the paper ENGINE with appropriate respect. 
 Still, two subscribers that we know of never received the July 
 ENGINE that was originally sent.

 If you're supposed to get an ENGINE and you don't, _complain_.
 We'll send you another one.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 57

 [Ordinarily, ballots for the National Computing Science Day 
 survey are confidential. But we asked Tim Patterson, career 
 database hacker and humorist from Berkeley, for permission to 
 print his.]

 "Free propeller beanies for every man, woman and child in
 the United States and all its colonies, formal and informal.

 Requirement that on National Computing Science Day, all 
 members of Congress speak only in machine language.

 Mandatory 10% raise every year for all clerical and 
 maufacturing employees in Silicon Valley."



 (a college CS story from James M. Putnam, Silicon Graphics 

 In 1974 I was working in the computer center of St. Andrews 
 Presbyterian College, Laurinburg, NC, which had an RJE card 
 reader/printer connected to Triangle Universities Computation 
 Center's twinned 370/168s. I had figured out how to up the CPU 
 and page limits for PL/C (a PL/1 student load-and-go compiler) 
 jobs. I was running a Monte Carlo simulation, and the numbers 
 from the random function didn't look very random, so I thought 
 I'd print out every hundredth one just to eyeball them. The 
 simulation was trying to approximate PI with Buffon's Needle 
 method, and I kept getting told that PI was 3.0, or some damn 
 thing. Somehow, in the next run, I misplaced a page feed 
 statement in the outer loop, and since the simulation ran a 
 million iterations, the program then tried to print out ten 
 thousand pages, each with a single ten digit random number in 
 the upper left-hand corner.

 This shouldn't have been so bad. If the college operator were 
 paying even the slightest attention, he would have stopped the 
 job after the first half-box or so of paper. At some point even 
 my expanded page limit would have shut it down. Unfortunately, 
 the operator on duty was Earl, one of my closer friends, for 
 whom intoxication from various sources was all but irresistible. 
 Working in the campus computer center didn't require much in the 
 way of higher brain function, so Earl tended to get a little 
 tanked before his shift.

 Over in the keypunch room, I was listening to the printer. 

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 58

 Something seemed wrong, but I couldn't figure out just what it 
 was. It wasn't until I wandered into the computer room, in time 
 to see Earl load a fourth box of greenbar paper, that it hit me. 
 I slapped the power switch on the printer, and rang up the TUCC 
 operator to cancel the job, and stood there meekly while he 
 called me, among other things, an idiot.

 Earl allowed, "You know, I was wondering when that thing was 
 gonna quit. I was hoping we weren't gonna run out of paper. What 
 were you going to do with all that stuff?" I admitted that I had 
 made a teensy error in judgement, and told him that if he ever 
 saw anything like that again, he was to gun the job first and 
 ask questions later. "Fine", says Earl, "but what do we do with 
 all this paper?". I admitted I didn't know, but suggested that 
 he just put it out with the other used paper. 

 It's funny, but for six months after that, I kept finding those 
 sheets of paper _everywhere_, in my room, in the cafeteria, at 
 the radio station. The only thing I can think of is that Earl 
 found a use for it after all.

The Analytical Engine, Volume 2, Number 2, October 1994 Page 59


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